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Introduction.-General view of the progress of Naval Science in the world.
-Christopher Columbus—his early career-his schemes for discovery-ne.
ettlement.-Their effect upon its growth an prosperity.--Government
Part II.-HISTORY OF THE NORTHERN COLONY OF VIRGINIA
OR NEW ENGLAND.
The Plymouth Company empowered to settle this division of the Continent.
Reformation of Luther.--Its progress in Europe.-In England.-Persecution
of Protestants compels them to leave England.--They return on the acces-
sion of Elizabeth.-Her hostility to their political sentiments.- The Brown-
ists.-Some of them take refuge in Holland.-Come thence to New England.
Settlement of New Plymouth.-Their position, character, and condition.-
Their progress.-Origin of the sect called Puritans - Progress of Puritanni.
cal sentiments, and persecutions in England, the sole cause of planting New
England. -Settlement of Massachusetts Bay.-Its charter of government.-
New Charter incorporating with New Plymouth - First representative as.
sembly in New England. --Its proceedings.-Interference of the Crown.-
Further history of this Colony.-The Colonies of New Haven and Connec-
ticut.—The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.-Conclu-
sion of this Part......
Part III.-GOVERNMENTAL HISTORY OF THE COLONIES IN
THEIR SMALLER DIVISIONS TO THE TIME OF THE DECLARATION
OF THEIR INDEPENDENCE.
Subdivisions of the Southern Colony of Virginia.-General characteristics of
of discontent thereby originated in the Colonies.- The Stamp Act.-Its re.
Part IV.-GOVERNMENTAL History FROM THE DECLARATION
OF INDEPENDENCE TO THE TIME OF THE ADOPTION OF THE
Position of the Colonies after the declaration of their Independence.--The
General Government of the Revolution.--Definitive treaty of Peace between
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
HISTORY OF THE SOUTHERN COLONY OF VIRGINIA.
There is, perhaps, no one of the sciences which, in its progress, has contributed more towards promoting the general welfare of mankind, or whose developements have tended so much to establish the amicable relations now existing among civilized nations, as the science of navigation. Through its agency people who were once not only alien, but whose very existence was unknown to each other, have been brought together and united by ties which were never felt or understood in the experience of ancient nations. An almost daily intercourse has taken place between the inhabitants of the most remote portions of the world. Commerce has been established between the barbarous and the civilized, for the supply of wants, which, by the one, were never before experienced, in exchange for commodities which by the other were till now regarded as without value or useless. This general intercourse of nations has almost
everywhere introduced a change of manners, habits, customs, opinions, and laws, which has revolutionized the face of society in every country, and by the gradual introduction and spread of more genial principles and influences is progressively ameliorating the condition of
The proud position which the Republic of The United States of America now occupies in the scale of nations, and the powerful influences which are emanating from them, make the history of our government and institutions a subject of great interest and importance to mankind, but more especially to those who may hereafter be entrusted with their guidance and control. In tracing these annals, the obligations which we owe to the science of navigation, make it necessary that we should give some account of its progress in the world.
The testimony of sacred as well as profane writers authorizes us to believe that the science of navigation was understood, although they leave us in doubt as to what extent it was practiced, in the earlier periods of the world's history. The multiplication of human families upon the earth, and their consequent dispersion over its wide territories must have suggested beneficial discoveries, and led to a reciprocal though limited intercourse. Europe, Asia and Africa were probably not unknown to each other as inhabited countries, though little perhaps was understood of their internal history. The relative position of the migratory tribes of men who inhabited those regions, and the nature of their correspondence with each other, were not such as to demonstrate to them either the utility or importance of the science of navigation, or greatly to encourage its cultivation.
We are told by the writers of antiquity that as far back as the seven hundreth year before the Christian æra successful voyages of discovery were made by the Carthagenians and Phenicians; but search has been made in vain for many of the records to which these authors refer, and of those which have been found many are inaccurate and mutilated, while the most interesting and important of these seem rather the exaggerated and romantic incidents of fiction, than faithful records of historical facts. Yet allowing all that is said of the extent to which this science was cultivated among these nations, there is much reason to believe that all traces of it had long faded from the recollections of men, inasmuch as the Greeks, who are said to have been their pupils in all the important arts and sciences, seem to have had hardly any acquaintance with the art of navigation. Some voyages were indeed performed by them, which their own historians accounted wonderful, but these were made merely for the purposes of conquest or of plunder, to islands not very remote, and creeping along the coast of the sea. Few, if any, had dared to launch out upon the broad bosom of the ocean for the purposes of discovery. And even these limited voyages were always attended with great hazard, and oftentimes with loss, the vessels employed being poorly constructed and unskilfully conducted. As the Greeks advanced, however, in civilization and refinement, learning increased, the arts and sciences were more liberally cultivated, and the encouragement and growth of commerce produced a parallel improvement in the progress of naval science and architecture. Still theirs was always a commerce of limited extent, and its enterprizes were for the most part confined to the Mediterranean sea. All other parts of the world were but little known to them, while they were wholly unacquainted with those rudiments of science upon which