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has also been formed for the purchase of a steam vessel to trade between this point and Cape Town, and for which shares have been taken to the amount of £8000.

The population in the village of Port Frances is scanty, but it can boast of an excellent inn, kept by Mr. Berrington ; a neat chapel of the Wesleyan denomination, and some of the most picturesque scenery in South Africa. Both banks the river are particularly beautiful. The river itself is navigable for vessels of considerable draught of water for about twelve miles.”

The mouth of the Great Fish River, there is not the smallest doubt, is navigable for craft of considerable size, and might be used without expending a single farthing for piers, or other sea works, such as has been done at the Kowie. The only danger is from the chance of a lull of wind off the steep rocks on the eastern side, where, however, there is great depth of water; but this might be obviated by employing a small steam tug, for which there is abundance of wood fuel on both banks of the river.

One of the earliest of the British settlers, Mr. John Bailie, entered this river in a small decked boat, on the 19th Sept. 1825, and after having carefully sounded the entrance and inspected the bar, pronounced it to be perfectly practicable. The average rise of tide at Springs is seven feet; eight feet six inches has been obtained. The depth upon the unshifting bar at low water is six feet. It is both a singular circumstance and a shame to the inhabitants that no attempt has been made to avail themselves of this port. The Kowie, where several thousand pounds have been expended, has not half the advantages of the Great Fish River. In the former there is a very small quantity of back-water; for its sources are not above twentyfive miles from its mouth, and it has no tributaries, while the latter has a run of above 200 miles in a direct line, besides numerous and strong tributary streams. Around the Kowie all the land is private property, while the eastern bank of the other for fifty miles belongs to the Kafirs, who would gladly dispose of it to settlers. The navigation of this stream besides would enable merchants to receive and supply the whole trade of Kafirland.

“ Bathurst is nine miles from Port Frances, and lies almost

on the direct route from thence to Graham's Town. This is considered to be one of the most pleasing villages in the colony. It is the Richmond of Albany, and well worthy of its designation.

“ It has also an inn, admirably conducted by the widow Hartley; an Episcopalian church, which, for chasteness of style and general appearance, may challenge comparison with any edifice of the same size in the parent country; a Wesleyan chapel ; a public school, and a reading association.

“ A resident justice of the peace is appointed for this village, with a stipend of £100 per annum.

“ Diverging a little to the south-east from Bathurst, at the distance of four miles, is a village, called Ebenezer, and sometimes James' Party. The greater part of this location lies upon an elevated ridge of limestone formation, and which may, perhaps, account for the peculiar fertility that distinguishes the land in this neighbourhood. The quality which lime possesses of retaining moisture and of rendering the soil cool and nutritive, makes that mineral as a manure of great value, and we doubt not but, were it more generally used, it would greatly improve the character of lands which are comparatively unproductive. In this village, on an elevated site, commanding an extensive prospect, is another chapel, belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists.

“ Proceeding four miles further towards Graham's Town, lies Clumber, but which need not be longer dwelt upon than to remark, that it contains a day and Sunday school, and a chapel, all of which have been established, and are conducted, by the Wesleyan society.

“ About ten miles south of this village, at a place called Cuylerville, a school-house has been erected by members of the Episcopalian church, and to which a schoolmaster has been appointed, although from the paucity of the population, and its scattered state in this particular neighbourhood, the attendance is not likely for many years to be very numerous. Cuylerville was the first village established by the settlers of 1820, and named as a mark of respect to Col. J. G. Cuyler, the then chief magistrate of the district.

“ From this point, a little to the west of the road to Graham's Town, on a spot called Trappes' Valley, an institution for

coloured persons has recently been established by the Wesleyan Society. They have here a chapel and a school, which are well attended by the natives who reside there.

Proceeding from this station towards Graham's Town, the road gradually rises, until, at a distance of ten miles from the capital, you ascend from Manley's Flat, the lofty ridge by which it is partly environed. From the summit of this elevation, the traveller obtains a bird's-eye view of nearly the whole of Lower Albany. Facing the south, his horizontal line is the ocean, distant twenty-six miles. A little inland from the coast, on the left, is Mount Donkin. From thence, looking westward, are seen the Bathurst Hills, and beyond them, to the extreme right, the heights at Lombard Post, near which is situated the Hottentot village of Theopolis, founded by the London Missionary Society, one of whose missionaries resides on the spot. The population of this village consists of 17 whites, 186 Hottentots, and other persons of colour, natives of the colony, and 120 aborigines (styled by the Government “ native foreigners”) of the country beyond the colonial boundaries, making a total of 323 persons. They have about 60 acres of land in cultivation, upon which were raised last season 58 muids of wheat, 110 of barley, 83 of oats, and 163 of maize. The live stock consists of a few horses, and about 550 cattle. The village contains a school and a chapel.

“ About fifteen miles north of Theopolis is situated another institution for coloured persons, called Farmerfield, and which was established by the Wesleyan Society about four years ago. The residents on this place are much more industrious than at the sister institution, and as a consequence more wealthy. An European superintendent, who acts as schoolmaster and catechist, is stationed here. The population consists of 74 Hottentots and other coloured colonists, and of 246 ó native foreigners. They have 225 acres of land in cultivation, and possess 15 horses, 1135 cattle, and 220 sheep. Last year they produced 30 muids of wheat and barley, 418 of maize and millet, 20,000 lbs. of oathay, 100 muids of potatoes, and ten of peas and beans.

“ It is computed that about one-third of the men on this station are usually labouring for the neighbouring farmers, the general rate of wages being 1s. 6d. per day. They have an excellent day and Sunday school, and Divine service is regularly performed by the Wesleyan missionaries, or by their lay assistants.

“ Four miles from Farmerfield, to the north, is the village of Salem, established by a party of Wesleyan Methodists, who formed a portion of the emigrants of 1820, and whose active zeal for the spread of religion, and the general diffusion of knowledge, has had such a manifest and powerful influence, not only upon the county of Albany, but upon the whole province. In this village there are several very respectable and substantial houses. The Assagai Bush River runs through the village, and affords during the driest seasons an abundant supply of water. The channel of the river lies deep, and has more the character of a succession of pools than a continuous stream. It frequently ceases to flow for considerable periods, but these pools are never exhausted, and abound with fish of excellent quality. In this village is a neat, well-built, and spacious chapel belonging to the Wesleyan Society, and a respectable dwelling for the resident missionary, who receives from Government a salary of £75 per annum. An unpaid justice of the peace resides here, W. H. Matthews, Esq., whose attention to the duties of his office, and zeal in promoting the advancement of every useful public measure, is worthy of imitation.

" The distance from Salem to Graham's Town, which lies in a N.E. direction, is sixteen miles, the road leading through some of the most romantic scenery. On approaching the chain of hills, behind which the town is situated, the road winds for several miles through a mountainous pass, where is exhibited some of the boldest and wildest features of African scenery. Here and there the mountains present the appearance of having been torn asunder by some violent disruption ; while on the jutting crags, and in the fissures of the rock, which frown in some places at a dizzy height above the head of the

veller, are seen the klipspringer bounding from point to point with a temerity and success that are perfectly surprising. This agile and interesting little quadruped is, however, not the only denizen of this wild neighbourhood. ` It abounds also with baboons, and several varieties of the monkey tribe. These animals are frequently seen in considerable numbers, and occa

sionally do much mischief in the fields and gardens of the adjacent farmers. The road through this mountain pass was originally constructed from funds raised by a voluntary subscription of a few of the inhabitants interested in that particular locality, assisted by a contribution of £100 per annum from Government. It has since been kept in repair by means of a toll, and by the occasional labour of the convicts*.

“On ascending the summit of the hill, Graham's Town is seen resting on its eastern base, embosomed in high land or ridges of inferior elevation. The general appearance of the town is pleasing, if not imposing. The houses being interspersed with gardens, and the streets of great width, the entire area of the town is so considerable as to afford ample room for the next generation at least, without the smallest extension of its present limits. The number of houses is computed at 700, the total amount of population at 5000, of whom 1000 are persons of colour, of the class usually termed native foreigners.' Some of the stores are spacious and handsome edifices, of late years a very considerable improvement having taken place both in the general style of building and the character of the workmanship. It has two weekly newspapers, which are well supported; a Joint Stock Association Bank, with a capital of £40,000, in most flourishing circumstances, the shares bearing a premium on the paid-up capital (£16 13s. 4d.) of £10 each. It has its own Fire Assurance Company, with a capital of £20,000, bearing a premium of 100 per cent. on the paid-up capital. A Steam Navigation Company has also been organised, with a capital of £8000; and a subscription public library has been commenced, and funds raised for the immediate purchase of 4000 volumes of standard works. A building for the reception of these books has been obtained from the Government, and which is now undergoing the necessary alteration and fitting

for the purpose. The annual subscription to this library is £1 10s., but which it is proposed to increase to £2, when a cer


The Cape is not a convict Colony, but the natives or Hottentots committed to prison for thieving, &c., are employed in Government works. Lahour, indeed, is so scarce, that masters, after committing their servants to prison, have been the first at the door, on the expiry of the term of punishment, to re-engage them.

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