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Had neither Van Riebeek, or any other European adventurer, ever set foot on the shore of this country, it might, and would most probably, have been still in the exclusive possession of wandering hordes of Hottentots, “living without God and without hope," their only de. sire self-gratification, their only mental exercise, the best means for the circunvention and destruction either of the wild beasts of the oountry or their weaker neighbours. By an all-wise and over-ruling Providence, this has not been permitted ; a little band of Europeans were led to the extreme point of this vast continent; they there sowed the seeds of colonisation, and these have sprung up and spread, not merely to this frontier, but also to the tropic. And the process must still go on.
No merely human power can stay it-can say, so far shalt thou go and no farther," and hence it remains for the British Government to decide as to whether it will wisely take the initiative in this stupendous and glorious work, or whether with weak and coward steps it will linger in the rear, and tardily follow, as in the Natal case, a movement which it may encumber, but cannot possibly prevent.
The last twenty-three years afford eminent examples in each of these respects. Refer, for instance, to the returns below, and what do we learn therefrom ? Why that in one solitary instance, where the Government has led colonisation, the most important benefits have resulted therefrom to the whole colony. The Albany settlement was planted in 1820, at an expense to the nation of £50,000, and what do we already behold as the result. The desert converted into a garden ; towns, villages, and hamlets, presenting themselves where all before was a cheerless solitude ; the busy hum of industry heard in every direction; the establishment of just laws; education and religion diffusing their benign, sovereign, and eternel influences throughout the land; and a trade created which absorbs merchandise, chiefly English manufactures, to the extent of upwards of £160,000 per annum, raising and sending home raw material in one year to the extent of £113,000. There is no brighter example in the world's history of the advantages of colonisation than is presented within a circle of country from the centre of which we now write. But still let it be borne in mind, that this success, great and decisive as it is, is the mere foreshadowing of what may, with the blessing of Providence, be reasonably expected.
The great staple of the Province, wool, is only the product of the last twelve years; and yet, recent as this is, it amounts already in quantity to a million of lbs. for the past year, the estimated value of which is within a fraction of £47,000. In the next ten years, this, with moderate success, may be quadrupled.
Now look at the reverse of this picture. At Natal the Government have obstinately opposed the progress of colonisation.
To stop it altogether was beyond the power of any Government. And what has been the deplorable consequences? The obstructions thrown in the way has caused a jar which has shaken the very foundation of our social structure. We have been talking of philanthropy, and acting so as to occasion the destruction of thousands of human lives, preaching economy, and squandering treasure like dirt; shewing the duty of allegiance, and exciting to disaffection; calling for peace, and provoking to hostility. And after all the very measure must be adopted, which, had it been taken at the outset, would have prevented all the mischief.
* Let, then, the past stand as a bright and significant beacon to the future, and from experience let the moral be deduced, that the true position of Great Britain is not in the rear, but in the van of colonisation; that she is called upon to be foremost in this grand movement, and that if she do not shrink from the responsibility, the consequence to the world will be as certain, as extensive, and as beneficial, as they will be to herself solid, enduriug, and glorious.
Sir,-Last year I had the pleasure of sending you a statement of the produce of the Western and Eastern Provinces of this fine colony, exported from the respective ports of Table and Algoa Bays, at which time I called your attention to the fact, that in the official returns of the exports of the Western Province, it was usual to mix up and blend all those of the Eastern which left Algoa Bay coastways.
At the time I allude to, I mentioned my belief that in the statement for the year 1842 there would be found full one million pounds of wool amoug the exports. The statement underneath shews it to have been 905.736 lbs., to which, if is added the quantity actually on ship-board Algoa Bay at the end of the Official Customs' year, (ending the 5th January, 1843), but not appearing in the returns, as the vessels containing it had not then “ cleared out," I believe my esitmate will not be found far wide of the truth.
An important circumstance should not be overlooked in reference to these returns, and that is, the wool export of the Eastern Province, of only twelve years' creation, exceeds the staple and ancient export of the Western Province, wine, by £7,845 !
Another subject of deep consideration for those who legislate for the colony, is the relative progress of its two great divisions, the Eastern and Western, which will be found in the accompanying table, No. 2.
The extraordinary increase, too, in the amount of the collection of of customs in the Eastern Port, from £1.369 in 1835, to £10,846 in 1842 must also strike every person who will take the trouble of looking into these returns, and it very naturally suggests the question- Why, when the government of the colony builds, manages, and keeps in repair three jetties at Cape Town, the beautiful structure now complete at Port Elizabeth to the length of 481 feet of wooden piles and decking, besides 207 feet of the best built masonry abutment, (entirely by private contributions, to the extent of £6,030), should be left to languish for want of a few hundred pounds from the Government purse, the purpose being exclusively that of facilitating the commerce of the colony-indeed both the Eastern and Western Divisions ?
JOHN CENTLIVRES CHASE.
No. 1.--Statement of the Quantity and Value of the Produce of the
Western and Eastern Provinces of the Cape of Good Hope, respectively-exported in the year ending the 5th January, 1843.
Produce of the Produce of the Western Province Eastern Province From Table Bay. From Algoa Bay.
Excess Western Province.
Value. Quan. Value.
£ £ 379315 6874 283305 5003 1871 88366 1453
1453 619 2369 868 2420 15345 858 158682 7522
8077 4426 190 279 4147 348884 1191
1191 784950 9848
9848 816 3893 159 756 3137 161569) 7088 80373 336 6752 172735 2173
2173 7619 5911 29242 19313 22242 874 71045 1191
515 14129 21 751 13378 3146 611 8603 1686 9004
240 1005 8280 400 1267 65 335 210134 14836 157491 14828 8 51289 954 283344 4953 26921 800 15640 487 313 523057 30726 905736 46453
2825 2834 521396 38608
112871 87638 44069
Total colonial produce
No. 2.-Comparative view of the Value of Colonial Produce, erported from Table Bay and Algoa Bay:-In the year 1821, from Table Bay, £130,578, and from Algoa Bay, £1500. In 1842, from Table Bay, £167,134, and from Algoa Bay, £112,871.
No. 3.-Summary of the Commerce and Navigation of the Eastern Province of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope for the last eight years.
From Port Elizabeth, Algoa Bay.
Duties and Fees
£ 1835 73 10938 39817 33298
1369 1836 64 8810 87245 47307
2894 1837 67 9133, 103077 39768
3489 1838 79 12607 | 131162 52412
5450 1839 85 13077 144015 42495
5599 1840 75 10046 S8665 61105
4025 1841 83 11975 90387 66050
4771 1842 99 15636 160588 121547 10846
JOHN CENTLIVRES CHASE. (On the 31st March there were seventeen trading vessels in Algoa Bay! an unusual number certainly; but attesting a vast trade to have sprung up in a few years from a small outlay for emigration.-ED.]
PORT NATAL. [After much indecision, the Cape Government has determined, by the following order, to consider Natal a British Settlement, and to admit its produce as colonial. It must be colonised to save money as well as lives : and the sooner it is accomplished the less loss and the greater benefit.]
All articles, the produce of Natal, are now admitted to entry at the Custom House of this, and the several other ports of the colony, upon the same terms as colonial produce, that is, free of duty, pending Her Majesty's pleasure. But all imported articles shipped from within the colonial boundaris for Port Natal, are required to have first paid the colonial import duties, and no further duties are levied thereon upon landing at Port Natal.
It is necessary to obtain a license from the Governor, granting permission to trade to Natal, upon condition of not importing there, any arms, ammunition, or ntensils of war, or any spirituous liquors, and upon further special conditions as His Excellency may deem to require.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, MARCH, 1843. Your Committee have the honour to report, that on their being elected at the Annual General Meeting in March, 1842, they considered it their first duty to carry into effect the several resolutions adopted at that meeting; they have consequently proceeded to deliver to the agent of Mr. William Dickson, at this place, the 501. Wool Prize Cup, he having been declared to be the successful competitor for the wool cup, and complied with the regulations and terms as fixed by this Society.
A subscription was also raised by your Committee for a second Wool Prize Cup of 25l., to be competed for yearly, under the same terms as the 501. Wool Prize Cup, by young beginners, who shall have been wool-growers for less than five years, which term was, however, by a resolution of this Society, in their Special General Meeting of the 1st September, 1842, extended to ten years.
Your Committee have also opened a subscription for a third prize, to be awarded to the second best sample competing for the 501. Wool Prize Cup. And it will now be for the meeting to decide in what said second prize shall consist, and what shall be its value.
Your Committee's attention was next directed to the prizes for the best samples of Cape Wine and Cape Spirits, in compliance with the resolutions of this Society in their meeting of November, 1842; they have consequenily offered a prize cup, value 25l., for the best sample of Cape wine, and a prize cup, value 25l., for the best sample of Cape spirit, all in the terms of your said resolutions, offered to the Cape wine. growers.
The amount, however, subscribed for these two cups amount only to 331. 108., so that your Committee resolved to add to the subscription list from the funds of the Society the sum of 161, 10s. sterling.
Five samples of Wine, and only one of Cape Spirit were hereupon received by your Committee, who appointed seven gentlemen, being all wine merchants of this town, to be judges thereof. These gentlemen laid their report before the General Meeting of this Society, held on the 1st September, 1842, when Mr. Nicholas Gerhardus Vos, of Klapmuts, in the district of Stellenbosch, was declared by that meeting as the successful competitor for the wine prize-cup, now ordered from home, whilst one sample of Cape spirit only having been received, no award has been made for the Cape spirit cup.
Your Committee have further to state their gratification in observing that the wool-growth is almost daily adding to the number of wool. growers in this colony; so that many of those farmers, who were formerly so to the breed of the Cape broad-tailed sheep, are now gradually, as they are enabled to value their own interest, laying aside their prejudice, which had but too long existed, against the breed of the Merino sheep.
The increase in the last year, in the exportation of this our staple produce, has been beyond expectation, and shews to what enormous extent this may be carried to in a few years.
The exports in 184) was 1,016,107 lbs., and in 1842, 1,428,793 lbs., shewing an increase of 411,986 lbs. in 1842 more than in 1841.
It is, moreover, satisfactory to observe, that whilst the quantity of