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at the Cape of Good Hope, will be postponed until the receipt of detailed explanations connected with the site and expense of the proposed buildings which the Governor of that colony has been instructed to send home.

With respect to the moorings and buoys, which you suggest should be laid down in the Bay, and which no doubt would be a great conrenience to trading vessels in any open anchorage, Lord Stanley desires me to observe, that you have brought forward no substantial reason for adopting this measure at the public expense, which could not be alleged with equal justice in favour of a similar measure at every similar port in Her Majesty's dominions. I am, Gentlemen, your obedient humble servant,

G. W. HOPE. Messrs. J. S. Christophers, Maynards, and Others.

The following Dietary Table of the Algoa Bay Emigration Ships cannot properly be withheld from a book professing to be a guide for emigrants. The succinct sketch of the colony, accompanying it, should specially be attended to by those whose minds and training render them unsuitable for colonising.

DIETARY OF MR. JOSEPH CHRISTOPHERS' SHIPS. STEERAGE PASSENGERS to be in Messes of Six or more, as the Captain or Surgeon may arrange, and victualled according to the following Scale, for one Adult :

Tea.

Biscuit best.

Fish.
Preserved Meat.

Flour.

Oatmeal. : Prime Mess Bf.

Raisins.

Suet.
Peas.

Rice.
i Ales : 5 | Prime Mess Pork.

Presd. Potatoes. •

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INTERMEDIATE PASSENGERS. The same Scale applies to INTERMEDIATE PASSENGERS, with the addition of 1 pint Ale or Porter, and pint Wine, or 4 pint Spirit, per day.

INTERMEDIATE PASSENGERS provide their own Beds, but are found in Earthenware and Table Linen, and have Inclosed Berths.

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For the sake of Cleanliness, NEW BEDS, and BEDDING, consisting of Mattress, Bolster, 2 Blankets, and a Rug, are provided free of charge for STEERAGE PASSENGERS. All Emigrants should be vaccinated: all married couples carry certificates of marriage, and having children, possess certificates of baptism. Testimonials always desirable : with them letters are granted procuring friends on arrival.

WOMEN receive the same rations as Men; CHILDREN receive rations in proportion; under twelve months receive no rations. FRESH MEAT and Soft BREAD supplied till passed the Downs, and as opportunities offer.

BREAKFAST-Tea or Coffee, and Sugar. Daily Meals as follows: { DINNER-according to the above Scale.

SUPPER—Tea or Coffee, and Sugar. The Preserved Potatoes being a nutritious vegetable, and unfailing throughout the longest voyage, supplied to all the Passengers.

Medical comforts provided in the following proportions :-On every 100 Passengers, including Children-7 lbs. Arrowroot; 30 lbs. Preserved Beef; 100 pints Lemon-juice, and Sugar to mix with it ; 40 lbs. Scotch Barley, 12 bottles Port Wine, 12 ditto Sherry Wine, 200 gallons Stout, 20 ditto Rum, 10 ditto Brandy.

In case of illness Barley served out, and, if required, 7 ozs. Molasses per week substituted for 6 ozs. Sugar, and pint Oatmeal per day for the Rice and Potatoes.

Medical Comforts issued free as the Surgeon deems proper; Women Wet-nursing have a pint of Stout per day, if advised by the Surgeon.

To respectable Steerage Emigrants to this prosperous Colony, Mr. Joseph Christophers is willing to advance part of the passage money, on receiving Promissory Notes.

The passage averages 75 days, provisions put on board for 105 days, as per Act of Parliament. These vessels are punctual; but to shew that they are so, 2s. a day will be paid each passenger, if detained beyond the day above named.

Passages in the Cabin, 381. ; Intermediate, 241. ; Steerage, 121. 12s. Berths to be secured by payment of half the Passage-Money.

Under eight years, three children count as 1 adult, from eight to fourteen years, two; under twelve months free. For Freight and passage, apply immediately to

MR. JOSEPH S. CHRISTOPHERS,

Agent for Emigration to the Cape of Good Hope. N.B.--All the Emigrants by the ORATOR, GUARDIAN, ANN, and MARGARET HARDY were engaged immediately; and their arrival only served to increase the demand. Domestic and Farm Servants, Shepherds, and Mechanics of all kinds are much wanted. East India Chambers, Leadenhall-street.

SKETCH. The Cape of Cood Hope is not a new colony in which emigrants have to encounter great difficulties. It belonged to the Dutch from 1562 to 1806, when we took possession of it. At this period the value of the produce exported amounted to about 50,0001; in the year 1841 it amounted to 245,3561. over and above its consumption, being the legitimate produce of the colony; if we included the transit trade from India, Brazil, &c. it would be double. The capital contains about 28,000

souls. That part of the colony, called Algoa Bay and Albany, was settled in the year 1820, by 3,800 emigrants, sent out by Government. There was no preparation made for their reception, no land was tilled, no houses or tents erected. Many persons, in character and calling unfitted for emigrants, were amongst the number; and they and the public generally very properly condemned the Government for the bad arrangements that were made. The colonists had, therefore, much to encounter for two years. They then began to lift up their heads, and ever since, except one incursion by the natives, the colonists have been very successful and prosperous. In 1821, the exports of Algoa Bay were 1,5001.-in 1841, without any further increase of population by emigration, the exports were 71,2421; and from the rapid increase in the export of wool and other articles, the produce of the colony, the first half-year's exports of Algoa Bay, for 1842, were 75,8041. sterling. In 1820, three huts adorned the beach of Algoa Bay—Elizabeth Town now uumbers 3,000 souls. In 1820, Graham's Town, in Albany, about 100 miles

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country, was not more populous than Elizabeth Town then; it now has a population of nearly 6,000 people, principally English. Utenhay, about 18 miles from Algoa Bay, contains about 2,000 souls. Besides these, there are numerous towns and villages decking the country, such as Somerset, Graf Reynet, Beaufort, Bathurst, Sidbury, Salem, Cradock, &c. &c. The total population of this province is about 70,000,making a progress equal to, or surpassing that of, any other colony. In the growth of wool it increases ten times as fast as Australia; and the staple itself quite equal, having been sold at 2s. 6d. per lb. Land, of equal value, may be purchased at a quarter the price of Australian land. Wages quite as high, say for mechanics, from 4s. 6d. to 78. 6d. and even 98. a day. Farm labourers, 25s. to 40s. per month, and shepherds, from 251. to 45l. per annum, besides board and lodging. Beef and mutton lid. to 3d. per lb. The climate more healthy than England, or any colony. The deaths in England are 14 per 1000 per annum; in Canada and Australia (both considered very healthy), 16 per 1000; but in Algoa Bay only 92. It is warmer than Canada, nearly as warm as Australia. Bread is rather dear; labour being high, the quartern loaf is commonly 12d.; it should be cheaper than in any other country. The wheat is the finest in the world, without any exception; heavier by 3 or 4 lbs. the bushel than the best English, and always fetching in the corn markets of London, Calcutta, Mauritius, and Australia, more than any English or foreign grain. The population of the whole colony is about 200,000, the county of George alone could sustain five times that nnmber, and the whole colony, well governed, would support at least 8,000,000 of people in prosperous circumstances. Convicts have never been introduced; and in proportion more churches and chapels exist than in any colony, consequently morality generally prevails. The proportion between the sexes in Australia is as 55,000 males to 21,557 females; Van Dieman's Land, 29,044 males to 12,027 females; at the Cape, in 1839, the proportion was nearly the same as in England, 72,485 males to 71,856 females. In almost every town and village, Government free schools, even pat terns to the mother country, are generally established; and, in short, the colony may be considered, and is eminently prosperous, moral and intelligent; and all that is wanted to give it quite the lead amongst the colonies of England, is the emigration of the useful mechanical trades,

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field labourers, and shepherds; the latter are usually allowed to accemulate flocks of their own.

One emigrant writes from Algoa Bay:-“All Lancashire could come here and fare well." Not so exactly; but 5,000 farm labourers and shepherds should annually go; and about 500 mechanics, consisting of bricklayers, stone masons, and plasterers, carpenters, bakers, butchers, shoemakers, tailors, saddlers, harness makers, wheelwrigbts, tarners, cabinet makers, smiths, painters, glaziers: a few coppersmiths, and braziers, cutlers, and printers would also get business. Domestic servants wanted by almost every family. Also some respectable governesses without high notions, yet with good qualifications. But few tradesmen or shopkeepers should go: clerks are not wanted, nor young men assisting behind the counter, nor goldsmiths, silversmiths, ivory workers, dancing masters, nor refined manufacturing aitizans; the Cape wants no useless or fanciful characters. Idle people and intemperate should stay at home. The industrious and sober not only obtain comfort, but acquire independence. A recent letter said, “ sinockfrocks are more welcome than long tails.” The Cape has been neglected by emigrants until lately, on account of the bad management in 1820.

Instead of the government, being condemned, the colony was condemned; and without companies to foment its prosperity, the Cape has gone on quietly winning itself into public favour. And this paper designs still to discourage unsuitable persons; the object is not to gain passengers, careless whether they are good emigrants or not, but to benefit individuals and the colony. The Cape and Algoa Bay are without paupers, nor are they wanted there. It is a singular boast, but at the Cape there are few fine gentlemen. Every man finds labour at once profitable and honourable. Many gentlemen assist in building their own houses.

English goods are scarcely dearer than in retail shops in England, and from the fineness of the climate, less clothing is required, Municipal corporations are established, and are producing great improvements. The land is manured with its own annual vegetation; all the vegetables and fruits of England, and eren of tropical climates, luxuriate. Fisheries, curing of meat, breeding of horses, and all kinds of agricultural industry, are prosecuted with the greatest success. In 1833, the exports of wool from this colony, were about 50,030 lbs. weight; in 1842, 1,382,000 lbs. Even the lack of emigration cannot retard the progress of the colony, but with emigration, no country can surpass it.

At a time when expatriation to the United States may not be prudent, and emigration to some other colonies may be overdone, the Cape and Algoa Bay offer great advantages. In time of peace for a market, and in time of war for protection, the Cape is at half the distance of the other southern colonies from Great Britain.

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HINTS FOR THE CAPE COLONISTS. In addition to the present, the following should become considerable articles of export from Algoa Bay :-silk and fax; tobacco; grain ; beef and pork ; raisins and preserved fruits, almonds, olives, figs, currants; lead (perhaps iron ore); fish and oil; tallow; horses and mules ; barilla; indigo, honey, tea, coffee, sugar, and fish.

Tel.-Barrow thirty years ago said, “ There can be no doubt that a great variety of exotic plants might be introduced with success into the colony.” The tea shrub, for instance, is already in the colony, and seems to thrive equally well as in China. It is a hardy plant and easily propagated, and the soil, the climate, and general face of the colony bear a strong analogy to those provinces of China to which it is indigenous. Home consumption in 1841,36,675,667 lbs. ; duty, 23. ld.

COFFÈE.--" Many years ago," still quoting from Barrow, “a small coffee plant was brought from the Island of Bourbon, and in three years was in full berry, and promising to succeed remarkably well. It has been tried in various parts with equal success, though only as an experiment, a regular plantation never having been attempted.' Home consumption in 1841, 28,370,857 lbs.; duty on produce of the Cape, 4d. per lb.

SUGAR.----Barrow says, sugar would succeed as well as coffee. But neither of these articles can receive much attention till, through emigration, labour can be obtained for giving sufficient care to these important articles.” Home consumption in 1841, 4,057,628 cwt. ; duty on produce of the Cape, 24s. per cwt.

SILK.--The progress made at the Cape in the growth of wool, will not only stimulate the colony to renewed annual exertions in the improvement of that staple, but encourage the colonists to expect equivalent results attending their enterprise, if they apply their attention to other articles equally suitable to the soil and climate. But none, it

may be imagined, can be of such extensive demand or value, or so worthy of pursuit, or likely to be so profitable. This is probably a great mistake. If the quantity of silk consumed in England is not quite one-tenth that of wool, it is more than ten times its value. In 1842 the quantity of raw silk consumed in England was 3,146,705 lbs., of waste, knubs and husks, 1,343,815 lbs., and 246,651 lbs. of thrown, total 4,757,171 lbs. Averaging the price at 15s, we have the amount of £3,567,877 sterling. India is the only English possession whence we derive a pound of this article of such vast importance. And yet the Cape, perhaps, might produce the whole of it. Remembering wool, let it not be thought a rash expectation that Cape silk will get vie with China, Indian, Modena or Valencia, or Brissa. The Cape soil is exactly suited for the growth of the mulberry tree. Miller observes that it delights in a rich light earth, and where there is depth of soil. In a stiff soil, or in shallow ground, whether of chalk, clay, or gravel, the trunk and branches are commonly covered with moss, when the fruit is small, ill-tasted, and ripens late. Abercrombie says the mulberry thrives well in a deep sandy loam, and succeeds in a fertile mellow ground, having a free situation in the full sun. It, therefore, appears that soil and sun are particularly in favour of the cultivation at the Cape. In England the mulberry is planted in grass plots, or pleasure grounds, as a standard tree, but sometimes as an espalier or wall tree. Its propagation is more successful with layers, cuttings, or graftings, than with seed. In Spain and India, and also in China, the white or silkworm mulberry is always propagated by cuttings, three or four being planted together so as to grow up into a bush. At Munich when the white mulberry is propagated extensively for feeding the silkworm, the finer varieties are grafted on the common seedlings. The dwarf mulberry thrives quite as well as in China; Lut the common

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