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a citizen thereof, and that I will faithfully execute, to the best of my abilities, the office of , according to law."
2. Treason against the commonwealth shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.
3. Every person shall be disqualified from serving as a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Senator, or Represen. tative, for the term for which he shall have been elected, who shall be convicted of having given or offered any bribe or treat to procure his election.
4. Laws shall be made to exclude from office, and from suffrage, those who shall thereafter be convicted of bribery, perjury, forgery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. The privilege of free suffrage shall be supported by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence thereon, from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper practices.
5. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in pursuance of appropriations made by law, nor shall any appropriations of money, for the support of an army, be made for a longer time than one year ; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published annually.
6. The general Assembly shall direct by law in what manner, and in what courts, suits may be brought against the commonwealth.
7. The manner of administering an oath or affirmation shall be such as is most consistent with the conscience of the deponent, and shall be esteemed by the general Assembly the most solemn appeal to God.
8. All laws which, on the first day of June, one thou. sand seven hundred and ninety-two, were in force in the State of Virginia, and which are of a general nature, and not local to that State, and not repugnant to this Constitution, nor to the laws which have been enacted by the legislature of this commonwealth, shall be in force within this State, until they shall be altered or repealed by the general Assembly.
9. The compact with the State of Virginia, subject to buch alterations as may be made therein, agreeably to the mode prescribed by the said compact, shall be considered as part of this Constitution.
io. It shall be the duty of the general Assembly to pass such laws as may be necessary and proper to decide differences by arbitrators, to be appointed by the parties who may choose that summary mode of adjustment.
11. All civil officers for the commonwealth at large shall reside within the State, and all district, county, or town officers, within their respective districts, counties, or towns, (trustees of towns excepted,) and shall keep their respective offices at such places therein as may be required by law: and all militia officers shall reside in the bounds of the division, brigade, regiment, battalion, or company, to which they may severally belong.
12. The attorney-general, and other attorneys for this commonwealth, who receive a fixed annual salary from the public treasury, judges, and clerks of courts, justices of the peace, surveyors of lands, and all commissioned militia officers, shall hold their respective offices during good behavior, and the continuance of their respective courts, under the exceptions, contained in this Constitution.
13. 'Absence on the business of this State, or the United States, shall not forseit a residence once obtained, 80 as to deprive any one of the right of suffrage, or of being elected or appointed to any office under this commonwealth, under the exceptions contained in this constitution.
14. It shall be the duty of the general Assembly to regulate by law, in what cases and what deduction from the salaries of public officers shall be made for neglect of dutv in their official capacity.
15. Returns of all élections for Governor, LieutenantGovernor, and members of the general Assembly, shall be made to the Secretary, for the time being.
16. In all elections by the people, and also by the Senate and House of Representatives, joinily or separately, ine votes shall be personally and publicly given, viva voce.
17. No member of Congress, nor person holding or exercising any office of trust, or profit, under the United States, or either of them, or under any foreign power, shall be eligible as a member of the general Assembly of this commonwealth, or hold or exercise any office of trust, or profit, under the same.
18. The general Assembly shall direct by law how persons who now are, or may hereafter become, securities for public officers, may be relieved or discharged on account of such securityship.
Concerning Slaves. Sec. 1. The general Assembly shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves without the consent of their owners, or without paying their owners, previous to such emancipation, a full equivalent in money for the slaves so emancipated. They shall have no power to prevent emigrants to this State from bringing with them such persons as are deemed slaves by the laws of any of the United States, so long as any person of the same age or description shall be continued in slavery by the laws of this State. They sliall pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and preventing them froin becoming a charge to any county in this commonwealth. They shall have full power to prevent slaves being brought into this State as merchandise. They shall have full power to prevent any slaves being brought into this State, who have been, since the first day of January, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, or may hereafter be, imported into any of the United States, from a foreign country. And they shall have full power to pass such laws as may be necessary to oblige the owners of slaves to treat theni with humanity, to provide for them necessary clothing and provision, to abstain from all injuries to them extending to life, or limb, and in case of their neglect or refusal to comply with the directions of such laws, to have such slave or slaves sold for the benefit of their owner or owners.
2. In the prosecution of slaves for felony, no inquest by a grand jury shall be necessary, but the proceedings in such prosecutions shall be regulated by law : except that the general Assembly shall have no power to deprive them of the privilege of an impartial trial by a petit jury.
Sec. 1. The seat of government shall continue in the town of Frankfort, until it shall be removed by law : Provided, however, that two-thirds of all the members elected to each House of the general Assembly shall concur in the passage of such law.
ARTICLE 9. Mode of Revising the Constitution. Sec. 1. When experience shall point out the necessity of amending this Constitution, and when a majority of all the members elected to each House of the general Assembly shall, within the first twenty days of their stated annual session, concur in passing a law, specifying the alterations intended to be made, for taking the sense of the good people of this State, as to the necessity and expediency of calling a Convention, it shall be the duty of the several sheriffs, and other returning officers, at the next general election which shall be held for representatives after the passage of such law to open a poll for, and make return to the secretary, for the time being, of the names of all those entitled to vote for representatives, who have voted for calling a Convention; and if thereupon it shall appear that a majority of all the citizens of this State entitled to vote for representatives have voted for a Convention, the general Assembly shall direct that a similar poll shall be opened and taken for the next year; and if thereupon it shall appear that a majority of all the citizens of this State entitled to vote for representatives have voted for a Convention, the general Assembly shall, at their next session, call a Convention, to consist of as many members as there shall be in the House of Representatives, and no more ; to be chosen in the same nianner and proportion, at the same places, and at the same time, that representatives are, by citizens entitled to vote for representatives; and to meet within three months after
the said election, for the purpose of re-adopting, amending or changing this Constitution. But if it shall appear, by the vote of either year, as aforesaid, that a majority of all the citizens entitled to vote for representatives did not vote for a Convention, a Convention shall not be called.
ARTICLE 10. That the general, great, and essential principles of lib erty and free government may be recognized and esta blished, we declare :
Sec. 1. That all free men, when they form a social compact, are equal; and that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive, separate, public emoluments or privileges, from the community, but in consideration of public services.
2. That all power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety and happiness : For the advancement of these ends, they have at all times an unalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or abolish their government, in such manner as they may think proper.
3. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God, according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no man shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; that no human authority ought, in any case whatever, to control or interfere with the rights of conscience; and that no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious societies or modes of worship.
4. That the civil rights, privileges, or capacities of any citizen shall in no wise be diminished or enlarged on account of his religion.
5. That all elections shall be free and equal.
6. That the ancient mode of trial by jury shall be held sacred, and the right thereof remain inviolate.
7. That printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislatu re or any branch of government; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free com