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years—the gay and joyous throng increasing at each succeeding anniversary. It has in some measure supplied that, in which it is said we were deficient, sources of innocent amusement.-(pp. 20–22.)

We might quote much interesting matter from Mr. Dillingham's address, but we have only space for his closing remarks, which we particularly commend to some of our amateur cultivators, whose ideas in regard to the cultivation of flowers are altogether too narrow and utilitarian :

We would not, if we could, have every object in life merely utilitarian. This might lead us to become sordid, selfish, and narrow-minded. These flowers were not made in vain. This pleasure which we experience at the sight of beautiful objects, and our enjoyment of their fragrance, are blessings conferred upon us by a bountiful Providence, purposely designed to lighten the burthens of life, alleviate its cares, and cheer us on our way. What would become of us if there were nothing to divert the thick crowding memories of all that is sorrowful in the past, or prevent still darker forebodings of the future? It is right to cultivate these tastes and to multiply objects for their enjoyment. Nature invites it

"Where wild flowers breathe their rath perfume ;" Scripture teaches it

"Consider the lilies." In Flowers we find the highest perfection of beauty, and fragrance most grateful to the sense,beauty of form, and color, and texture, and combination, in never ending variety; and equally endless variety of perfume, each challenging comparison with the rest. The highest perfections of art pale before the beauties of Flora-Art can but catch the breath which Flowers exhale, to form its most exquisite perfumes. Horticulture comes in aid of Nature to develop these perfections and multiply our delights. The gardener's skill has achieved wonders. Witness the Rose, the Carnation, the Pelargonium, the Camellia, and the Pansy; compare each splendid variety with its humble original.

Happiness is what we all seek. But there is no true happiness to be found without a constant recognition of the Author of these beautiful things around us, the observance of his laws, contemplation of his works, love of his perfections, and awe of his power. Where can we learn the lesson better than in this department of the volume of Nature ! Here we shall be certain to find constant exhibitions of infinite wisdom and infinite goodness,-here we discover that “order is Nature's first law." We seek to imitate these perfections and to conform our own lives to the dictates of that wisdom and goodness which engrosses our affections and our thoughts. We see and feel that it is impossible for such beauties and perfections to have originated without design. Thus we may find in the rose of Sharon and the lily of the valley, emblems of flowers that never fade,-thus, by means of "a well-watered garden," we may hope to attain a final resting place under the shadow of the tree of life.-(pp. 33–34.)



Gencral Notices.

Pruning.--Now that the summer's business is fairly at an end, it is time to take steps to provide against an inordinate pressure of business in the forthcoming spring; for any arrears of autumn or winter business, at that busy period, will prove a great hindrance to the carrying out a properly devised system through the ensuing season, and can be justified on the grounds of necessity alone. Planting, pruning, training, trenching, &c., are matters that belong peculiarly to this dormant period, and having before disposed of planting and trenching, by diverting attention to its importance, we will now offer a few practical remarks on pruning. The habits of fruit trees vary, more especially as to the manner of forming and exhibiting their buds ; thus there is no difficulty in distinguishing the fructiferous portions of the apple, or of bush fruit in general, whilst the apricot and the filbert are, at this period, somewhat obscure in regard of these points. Even in the pear, more especially some of the newer kinds, such as the Passe Colmar, the Seckel, the Marie Louise, and some others, it is difficult to prune with safety in the early part of winter. For these reasons, therefore, we say, prune bush fruit the moment you can find time. Follow closely with cherries, plums, and apples, and towards Christmas lay by the knife until the early part of February, when the filberts will be blossoming ; then, after a slight thinning of the crowded and inside spray, male catkins may be brought if requisite, and suspended among the bushes. The apricots will, by this time, give unequivocal signs by which to know the true blossom buds; these, then, may immediately receive their pruning. The peach and nectarine will succeed the apricot; and these may be followed by the pear, and lastly by the fig. In pruning bush fruit thin liberally. Let no two branches in the black currant and the gooseberry touch when finally thinned ; these seldom require shortening; an equal and judicious thinning is therefore every thing here. In pruning apples the thinning of the branches or old wood should be the first step; this, however, requires caution.

The late Mr. Knight, of Downton, was much against cutting out large limbs, unless a severe necessity existed. His authority is too weighty to be passed over easily, more especially as he lived most of his time in a cider district. In thinning the young wood of espaliers, remember that the first point is to secure a continuance of leading shoots to form a compact tree; and the second, to secure a free admission of light to all parts of the tree. The same remarks will apply to the pruning of all the rough espaliers or dwarf standards of the kitchen garden, be they of what kind they may. Raspberries may now be planted and pruned : some of the soundest remarks on this subject, we ever read, appeared in the Chronicle for October 9.-(Gard. Chron. 1847, p. 703.)

Pruning the Vine.-In your leading article on the subject of the Vineries at Bishop's Stortford, you concluded by saying that the vines were pruned on Mr. Crawshay's system. I presume from that general allusion that the system is well understood by professional gardeners; but I rather think it is not as universally known as it would seem to deserve, if it can be proved to be certain and successful. In all treatises I have read on pruning the vine, from Speechley downwards, I have never met with any which has detailed this mode of treatment, or recommended its adoption. I have heard it in conversation described as “the walking-stick system,” because its principle consists in giving very much that appearance to the main stem, which is always preserved. At each autumnal pruning the whole of the new wood is cut off to within an eighth of an inch of the old stem. So small, indeed, is the spur left, that the growth of the wood of the following year nearly levels it with the old wood. At the point of junction of this eighth of an inch with the stem, one or more buds are developed, which in the succeeding year become the shoots upon which the fruit is produced. The old-fashioned grape-grower sees with dismay in this system all the buds of the year which have grown and ripened under the influence of a Bummer and autumn's sun, annihilated “at one fell swoop," and stares when told that he is to trust entirely for his crop of next year to a bud which he can hardly see. Might I ask your contributors who delight in vine culture whether the success of this plan depends upon the great power working at the roots—the forty barge loads of manure, such as our friend at Bishop's Stortford supplies to the gluttony of his vines--and which converts that which, in ordinary circumstances, would at best be but a weak wood-bud, to the production of the finest fruit? Is this mode of pruning likely to be generally successful? There are, undoubtedly, many advantages in it. Amongst others, it does seem more consistent with nature, and with all our ideas of rendering culture subservient to her laws, to retain the main stem of the tree which furnishes the largest capacity for the flow of the sap; it also enables us to keep both fruit and foliage close under the rafters, and thereby to secure the greater quantity of light flowing into our houses. Any useful discussion on the subject will oblige J. J.-(Id. 1847, p. 718.)

Tagetes pinnata.--Allow me to offer my meed of praise to this delightful annual. As a perpetual bloomer, from earliest summer till latest autumn, it is unrivalled as an annual. The rich golden yellow of its beautifully reflexed petals, the exquisite pinnate foliage and compact growth, are all worthy of our warmest admiration, and claim for it a place in every garden. As a mass flower I know nothing of its class to equal it.-(Id. p. 670.)

Art. II. Foreign Notices.

ENGLAND. Dahlias and Dahlia Exhibitions for 1847.-Agreeably to our usual plan of keeping our amateur cultivators informed of every thing relative to the improvement and cultivation of the Dahlia, we have gleaned from our Eng. lish papers the following accounts of the Dahlia exhibitions of the principal Societies in England and Scotland. We regret to see, with many of our cultivators, a tendency to neglect the cultivation of this splendid autumnal flower, without which our gardens would be despoiled of their greatest ornament. It is true the dry summers of 1845 and 1846 were so fatal to the fine blooming of the plants, that many were so much disappointed in their cultivation as to discard them, or at least greatly reduce the number of their plants; but the past season has been so propitious to their growth that we trust another spring to see the usual attention given to the selection of the new kinds, which have been proved to possess the real properties of good flowers.

Royal CALEDONIAN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.-Best twenty blooms. Beeswing, Miss Vyse, Louis Philippe, Lady of the Lake, Caractacus, Lily White, Vanguard, Cloth of Gold, Sir E. Antrobus, Marchioness Cornwallis, Marquis of Aylesbury, Princess Radzivile, Berryer, Queen of Sheba, Mrs. Anderson, Marchioness of Lorn, Scarlet Gem, Empress of Whites, Captain Warner, and Alice Hawthorn.—To Mr. T. Handyside, Glen Nurseries, Musselburgh.

Royal South LONDON HorticulTURAL SOCIETY.—Best twenty-four blooms. Lady of the Lake, Beeswing, Yellow Standard, Beauty of Sussex, Essex Triumph, Miss Sarah, Louis Philippe, Andromache, Victory of Sussex, Lily White, Marquis of Aylesbury, Springfield Rival, Beauty of Hants, Admiral Stopford, Empress of Whites, Captivation, Raphael, Nonpareil, Essex Rosy Lilac, Princess Radziville, Mrs. Shelly, Captain Warner, Lady Stopford, and Standard of Perfection.—To Messrs. Cutter & Shankey, Slough.

West of ENGLAND DAHLIA EXHIBITION.-Best twenty-four blooms. Lady St. Maur, Beeswing, Lady of the Lake, Gloria Mundi, Admiral Stopford, Biondetta, Miss Vyse, Louis Philippe, Captain Warner, Marchioness Cornwallis, Captivation, Beauty of Sussex, Queen of Roses, Nonpareil, Queen, Essex Triumph, Yellow Standard, Standard of Perfection, Bermonsdy Bee, Aurantia, Mrs. Shelly, Cassandra, Springfield Rival, Princess Radziville.—To Messrs. Cutter & Shankey.

Norwood HORTICULTURAL Society.—Best twenty-four blooms. Pulchella, Prometheus, Victorine, Metropolitan Queen, Mrs. Shelly, Cheltenham Queen, Model, Rosetta, Essex Triumph, Miss Vyse, Robusta, Queen of the Isles, Erecta, Mary Anne, Scarlet Gem, Pride of Surrey, Duncan, Beauty of Bath, Admiral Stopford, Essex Goldsmith, Standard of Perfection, Alarm, and Bragg's Star.–To Mr. Gaines, of Battersea.

METROPOLITAN GRAND DAHLIA Suow.-Best twenty-four blooms. Lady Cooper, Madame Zellar, Cleopatra, Beeswing, Nonpareil, Alexandria, Marquis of Bath, Miss Sarah, Hon. Careat, Standard of Perfection, Essex Rosy Lilac, Raphael, Victorine, Caractacus, Griseldi's Eboracum, Conspicuum, Rembrandt, Ophir, Mrs. Anderson, Queen of Roses, Minerva, Miss Vyse, and Berryer–To Mr. Barnes, Stowmarket.

NORFOLK AND Norwich HorticuLTURAL Society.-Best twenty-four blooms. Marchioness of Cornwallis, Nonpareil, Essex Triumph, Yellow Standard, Queen of Roses, Queen of Perpetuals, Standard of Perfection,

Andromeda, Essex Rosy Lilac, Essex Bride, Captain Warner, Berryer, Captivation, Beeswing, Marquis of Aylesbury, Madame Zellar, Esther, Diadem, Bathonia, Rembrandt, Lady Stopford, Royal Chancellor, Princess Radziville, and Sir E. Antrobus.--To Mr. Widoall, Grant-Chester.

ROYAL CHELSEA Dahlia SOCIETY.—Best twenty-four blooms. Lily White, Beeswing, Lady St. Maur, Essex Triumph, Lady of the Lake, Gloria Mundi, Springfield Rival, Biondetta, Captain Warner, Yellow Standard, Captivation, Arethusa, Venusta, Nonpareil, Beauty of Sussex, Queen of Roses, Hon Mrs. Herbert, Bermonsdy Bee, Empress of Whites, Standard of Perfection, Admiral Stopford, Ackbar, Raphael, and Marchioness of Cornwallis.—To Messrs. Cutter & Shankey, of Slough.

These are the principal Dahlia exhibitions, and a careful inspection of the above awards will show which are the leading flowers. By a reference to our last year's summary, (Vol. XII. p. 489,) it will be seen that we gave a list of such as our correspondent stated would be the “crack" flowers, and they are all included in the above premiums.

Fancy Dahlias.-As much interest is felt in this class of flowers, we give the following as the names of those which have been the most prominent in the prize stands of the Royal South London and Metropolitan Grand Dahlia Shows :

Captivation, Surprise, Mimosa, Viscount Ressegeur, Herherzoy Stephen, Minerva, Miss Watson, Hermione, Admirable, Desdemona, Roi de Pointelles, Adolphe Dubras, Coquette, Master G. Clayton, Baron Hugel, Pantaloon Pamsl, Ober Justigrath, Mr. Walner, Queen of the French, Madame Wachy and Narcissus.

Seedlings of 1848.–The following premiums were awarded at the Royal South London Exhibition :

An extra prize, presented by Messrs. Bragg & Bright, of Slough, for four blooms of the best seedling fancy Dahlia not sent out, to Mr. Elphinstone, for a seedling named Mrs. Shaw Lefevre, a well-built flower, florets fine in shape, of good substance, and smooth on the edges, eye beautifully formed, color red and white. Extra prizes offered by members, open to all classes, for four blooms of the best seedling Dahlia not sent out-Ist, to Mr. Collisson, Bath, for a seedling named Shylock, a rich scarlet self, form good, florets finely shaped, of good substance, and smooth on the edges, eye beautifully formed, it also appears very constant ; 2d, to Mr. Gaines, Battersea, for four blooms of a seedling named Mount Blanc, a white variety, flower large, form good, florets nicely shaped, of good substance, and smooth on the edges, eye well up in the centre, its being a shade whiter would be a decided improvement; 3d, to Mr. Pope, of Chelsea, for a seedling named Nell Gwynne, a handsome variety in its class, flower large, tolerably good in shape, eye well up in the centre, color a bright primrose. The above three seedlings, besides their prizes, were awarded first-class certificates to each. Mr. Keynes exhibited four blooms of a seedling named Walter Hilson, rather a striking flower, outline first-rate, it has great depth of florets, which are nicely shaped, and of good substance, the eye is a little defective, being a trifle sunk, color an orange buff; it obtained a first-class

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