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pale dots. The flesh is yellowish white, melting, buttery, very sugary and rich, with a musky flavor, resembling the Seckel, or Henri Quatre; on the whole, it mostly resembles the latter, but the skin is thiuner and smoother, and the eye is not so much plaited. The end of September and beginning of October is the season of maturity.
Doyenné Gris d'hiver noureau.—Rather a long name, but it proved last season to be a very late-keeping pear, and of superior quality. The present season will afford a better opportunity to test it.
ART. VI. On the Propagation of Slove and Greenhouse Er
otics : in a Series of Lillers. By JAMES KENNEDY, Gardener to S. T. Jones, Staten Island, New York.
Letter VIII. Propagation by Suckers. The exotics generally propagated by this mode are such as the Aloe, Pitcairnia, Yucca, Tillandsiæ, &c. &c., which, after they have done flowering, generally produce, in the summer months, suckers either from the stem or roots. These may be carefully taken off in the following spring, potted off into separate pots, proportioned to their size, and plunged up to their rims in a mild hotbed, where, if regularly supplied with air on fine days, and shaded when the sun is powerful, they will soon strike root.
This is the mode generally resorted to in increasing most deciduous herbaceous kinds of exotics, such as Lobelia lùtea and campanulóides, sowerbiu, Júncea, &c. &r., as well as all shrubs which are prone to produce numerous suckers. The best time to divide the plants is when they receive their summer potting; then the divisions can be potted into separate pots, and allowed to mingle with their fellow-denizens in their proper departments, where exactly the same treatment will le suitable for all.
Iu conclusiou, I would beg to remark, that by these loose liinis, (for such indeed they are,) I have endeavored to illustrate the principal modes of increasing exotics, as far as my humble abilities would allow, with the way each mode may be performed with certain success. At the same time, I doubt not but many of the directions and observations will, by some, be considered trilling, unimportant and tedious; but to such objections I would answer, they are necessary to perfect suc
We are all well aware that, to accomplish any particular object, a certain amount of pains must be called into action; and I say, that, to aim at the successful propagation and cultivation of beautiful, delicate and expensive plants, it is impossible to bestow too much pains on their management. I would also beg to say, that, in preparing this for the Magazine, the writer lays little claim to originality. There is not, perhaps, a single process described which has not been long in practice in every nursery establishment where propagation appears in its real character; but if the amateur or young gardener gains any benefit from this, I am more than doubly paid for my trouble.
Staten Island, N. Y., September, 1847.
We need not again commend the letters of Mr. Kennedy: he has stated that, to many, the details may seem "trifling and unimportant.” Perhaps they may to the experienced propagator; but to the amateur, or young professional man, these very "trifling" hints are the most valuable. We only hope Mr. Jones will continue to contribute of his fund of knowledge in our future numbers.-Ed.
ART. I. Gencral Notices.
The Cultivation of the Currunt, and the Production of New Varieties.-We recently, in our notice of May's Victoria Currant, (p. 392,) offered some remarks in relation 10 the great improvement which we believe would result from the production of new seedlings. The editor of the Garilener's Journal, in an article which appeared about the same time, has taken the same view of the subject, and in words so similar, that we copy them to show we are not alone in our views of improvement in this neglected fruit. The raspberry and the gooseberry he also thinks, and justly too, may be greatly improved. We quote the whole of his remarks, and commend them to the attention of every amateur :
Last week, we took occasion to recommend to the attention of gardeners, and garden amateurs too, the subject of improving what re called the “small fruits." We then referred to the strawberry, the raspberry, the gooseberry, and the currant, as examples, and offered some suggestions for the improvement of the former. We now proceed with such further remarks as suggest themselves, and, in following up our former plan, will inquire, what can be done for the raspberry? Perhaps less than in most other kinds of small fruit. It is not clear that the favor of the raspberry could be at all improved. There is probably not much to be gained in the way of imparting to it variety of appearance. The best varieties at least possess the property of size, in a considerable degree ; and, though this might be enlarged upon, yet it does not seem to strike one as a very necessary change; some of the present varieties, when well grown, may indeed be considered large. In what way, therefore, could our present race of raspberries be improved on?
There does seem to be one point at least on which an improvement might be wrought. Notwithstanding that the fruit is held in such universal estimation, the raspberry season is but of short duration. True, there is a double bearing variety, as it is called, which fruits later than the other kinds : this is valuable, so far, in itself : but we also take it as the earnest of something further. It is, in fact, just the thing to work with ; and we have no doubt that a little well-directed energy would very shortly produce from it varieties which would materially prolong the raspberry season.
What can be done for the gooseberry? That the gooseberry cannot resist the power of improvement to which we are referring, there is ample evidence in the production of the prize varieties for which Lancashire is fa
But the Lancashire growers breed only for size ; that quality they have indeed stamped upon the fruit in a very remarkable degree ; but this of itself is not enough for the dessert, nor yet for the culinary depariment; quality, not less than quantity, is a necessary recommendation in the garden of the connoisseur. Gooseberry growers may, therefore, busy themselves to impart the flavor of the choicer kinds to the large show varieties that are now chiefly raised ; and, in doing this, they will have effected an improvement worthy of the effort. But why not also prolong the gooseberry season? It is fully short enough. Some of the early kinds might, in time, be pushed a little nearer the vernal equinox than we now have them ; and this early race would not be injured by increased size, and more concentraied flavor. Then, aga.n, with the late varieties. Might not new forms, later than any we now possess, be obtained? And would not, in this case also, additional size constitute a further improvement? These results are only waiting the well-directed efforts of some zealous individual to meet a full realization.
What can be done for the currant? We see no reason why bunches of currants should not, for s.ze, bear a closer comparison than now, with
bunches of grapes. The thing is by no means so ideal as it might at first seem to be. Were the berries double the size of those of the largest of our present varieties, and these, borne, as we now see them, occasionally, from a dozen to a dozen and a half in a bunch, we should have a very respectable approach, if not to the clusters of Eschol, at least to the more ordinary range of our cultivated grapes. Some of the varieties bear fruit which is less acid, and less woody-tasted, than that of others : these qualities would, of course, be required in the new and improved series. Then, again, currants are a fruit which it is often considered desirable to keep for some time —some months indeed-on the trees. It would be worth attempting to obtain varieties which would hang better than our present varieties do. On the subject of improving the present varieties of currants, we have recently met with some judicious remarks by Mr. Tomlinson, in the Midland Florist; and, as they bear directly on the subject before us, we will introduce them here :
“ I have for years been an extensive cultivator of currants, selling the produce in the large town in my immediate neighborhood, and I find that, though the red grape is a large and fleshy fruit, still it ripens unkindly, which is a great drawback to its more extended cultivation. The old longbunched red is, with me, far preferable ; but I see no earthly reason why this fruit might not be improved in a very great degree. Would it not be possible to raise a-currant show,' on the principle of the Lancashire gooseberry shows? and if this could be carried out, and an inducement given to raise fresh varieties from seed, I make no doubt that we should speedily have currants double the present size, and much longer in the bunch ; and I am sure that nothing would pay better than improved varieties of both black and white, as well as red ones. The plant comes early into bearing, and any improvement on the old sorts would speedily supersede them, as the black Naples is now displacing the black grape.
" I heard of several new sorts, which I purchased last autumn, and am now growing them, to test their respective qualities. Of course, I cannot, the first season, decide, as I should wish to have my plants well established. The sorts purchased are:
“ 1. The Gondouin Red.-A continental variety, with peculiarly red wood and large foliage, very distinct in habit.
"2. The Cherry Red. Also from the continent. This has extremely large foliage, and stout shoots.
May's Victoria.—This, I see, has been mentioned in several publications as a large and very prolific variety, and would, doubtless, be a fine sort to save seed from.
Haughton Castle (Red).—This was raised in the far north of England. Its character to me was large and late. It appears to be an erect grower, and has abundance of fruit, which is of good flavor, though, from the circumstance of the trees being planted only last autumn, not so large as when they become established.
“5. Goliath.- I have also received with this a first-rate character as a good red currant; and, if any induction is to be made from its luxuriant mode of growth, I should fancy it would respond to its name.
“I have selected some of the largest berries on both Goliath and May's Victoria, the seeds of which I intend to sow; and should these prove large, I will again sow from the largest. By this means, in a series of years, I hope to arrive at the height of my ambition, namely, to produce currants as large as small marbles. Now I am confident there is nothing Utopian in all this; and I am certain that, if a few persevering individuals were to devote their attention to the improvement of the currant, it would be attained in less than ten years."
Once more we may state—and we repeat it, because it is a rock on which very many split—that experiments of this kind are the better for being conducted on a limited scale. One case of cross-breeding, carefully wrought out, on correct principles, is more pregnant with really useful and valuable results, than a thousand promiscuous ones, or a hundred carelessly prosecuted ; while, of course, the labor and trouble attending the experiments becomes lessened a hundred or a thousand fold. Those, too, who have time and opportunity for more extensive operations, should take care to multiply carefully-instead of carelessly-conducted experiments.-(Gard. and Farm. Journ., 1847, p. 115.)
Scarlet Pelargoniums.-I am inclined to predicate a longer rule for scarlet pelargoniums, because they are highly useful in our summer gardens, are easy of cultivation, and must always please by the splendor of their numerous flowers. As show flowers, they could scarcely be admitted, for they have too little variety, and besides, they produce less effect in pots on a small scale than in the open air. I have had an opportunity this season of comparing several good gardens, and in nothing has dissimilitude been more manifest than in the presence or absence of these beautiful flowers. A garden plentifully supplied with them has an unspeakable charm, which no other production 1 know of can confer; indeed, I never remember seeing too many of these, but on the contrary have generally observed that more might be introduced with advantage. The first advantage which may be mentioned is the foliage, which has such a fine exotic character, and looks so fresh at the autumnal season, when so many productions have a russet hue. Next comes the permanency of the flowers, the trusses of which are often so large that a supply, to fill up the places of those which have decayed, is furnished for a considerable time. Further, they will resist frosts much longer than other tender plants, surviving those early allacks which often destroy the dahlias. Lastly, they are as easy of propagation as any thing can be, both by seeds and cuttings; they may also be preserved through the winter with a very small portion of care.
Large specimens produce a fine effect, and they may be secured by taking up the tallest plants in the autumn, potting them, and turning them out in the spring. I have some plants of Smith's Superb, which are four years old, with stems of an established woody character, and above a yard high. When these are surrounded by others of a dwarf character, as General Tom Thumb, or other dwarf varieties, so as to hide the stems of their older