« AnteriorContinuar »
Art. VI. Floricultural and Botanical Notices of New and
Beautiful Plants figured in Foreign Periodicals ; with Descriptions of those recently introduced to, or originated in, American Gardens.
Achimenes pàtens.- This new and beautiful species, which has been figured in the Journal of the London Horticultural Society, and pronounced one of the most beautiful of all that have yet been introduced, is now finely in flower in our collection. It is a fine species, having a compact and neat habit, with small, deep-green, shining foliage, and flowers of the richest violet hue, about the size of A. grandiflòra, and fringed at the edge of the corolla.
Platycòdon grandiflòrum—a most beautiful campanulaceous plant-is now coming into flower. It is represented as the most showy of all the campanulas, to which genus it has been stated to belong, under the name of C. grandiflorum.
Hydrangea japónica has been one of the most popular and generally admired plants in our collection. Our engraving, at p. 123, gives a fine representation of its habit of growth and bloom. Its great attraction consists in the contrast between the outer flowers and the inner ones, the former being large and white, while the latter are small and of a deep blue. It is of the simplest cultivation, and must become an indispensable addition to every collection of plants.
10. Da'phne FORTU NI Lindl. Mr. Fortune's Daphne, (Ericaceae).
A half hurdy shrub ; growing two to three feet high; with lilac blossoms; appearing in spring ; a native of China; increased by cuttings and grafting; cultivated in peat and loam. Journal or Hort. Soc. Vol. II. p. 34.
This "charming shrub" is one of Mr. Fortune's discoveries in China, where it was found growing in a nursery garden near Shanghae, in the winter of 1843. Being deciduous, it was then leafless, but, as it was taken to the south of China, to be shipped with the other plants, the warmth forced it into bloom, and it proved to be a fine shrub. The next spring, Mr. Fortune found it growing wild on the hills in the province of Chekiang, where it forms a dwarf shrub two to three feet high. In March and April, the flower-buds expand, and then
the whole of the hill sides are tinged with its beautiful lilac colored blossoms, and have a very gay appearance. It flowered in England for the first time, in the spring of 1846, and, as yet, it is extremely rare. Mr. Fortune states that it grows freely in a loamy, well-drained soil, and that it is readily increased by cuttings. The Chinese name is Nu-lan-ee, and the bark, like the mezereon, is acrid and poisonous. In England, it has been treated as a half-hardy shrub, but as it is found growing where the thermometer falls to within a few degrees of zero, it may prove hardy in our dry and cool winters. Mr. Fortune remarks that, whether hardy or not, “it will always be a favorite amongst spring flowers in the greenhouse, where it richly merits a place in every collection. (Hort. Soc. Journal, 1847).
11. AzA`LEA OBTU`SA Lindl. Obtuse-leaved azalea. (Ericacea).
A half-hardy shrab; growing two to three feet high ; with blush-colored flowers ; appearing in spring; a native of China ; increased by cuttings; cultivated in peat and loam. Journal of Hort. Soc. Vol. II. p. 127.
"A distinct species" of the azalea, which Mr. Fortune found growing on the sides of the green tea hills in the province of Chekiang, and also on some of the islands of the Chusan Archipelago, where it is ralled the "silver silk flower,” by the northern Chinese. There are two varieties, both of which have been introduced, one with flowers of a rich white color; the other pink, and both are beautifully dotted with dark spots on the under petals. The corolla in form is nearly round, and not unlike Rhododendrum chamæcistus, or a finely-shaped pelargonium, in appearance. Its flowers are produced in great profusion in the months of April and May. "The habit of the plant is compact and neat, and it is altogether a fine addition to this beautiful family. It is increased like other azaleas, and grown in similar soil. (Hort. Soc. Journal, 1847).
12. CAME'LLIA JAPOʻNICA var. Comte de Paris. The Compte
de Paris's Camellia, (Ternstromidcece). A new and beautiful variety of the camellia, which was obtained from a plant of the Duchesse d'Orleans in the collection of M. Van Ghiersdale of Ghent. A single branch having sported in color, it was inarched or grafted on a good stock,
&c., vol. II. pl. 158. 1646.
and the sport thus retained. It differs from the Duchesse d'Orleans, in having the ground color rose striped with red, while the parent is white striped with rose. The flower is finely imbricated and perfect, and the variety must rank as one of the finest which has been produced. (Flore des Serres et des Jardins de L'Europe, 1846). 13. Tore’NIA ASIAʼtica L. Asiatic Torenia, (Schrophulariaceae).
An annual plant; growing two feet high ; with blue and purple flowers; a native of India; increased by seeds ; cultivated in any good soil. Flore des Serres, &c., Vol. Il. pl. 157. 1846.
A new and most beautiful annual, cultivated in a similar manner to the petunia, growing about two feet high, and producing beautiful sky blue flowers, finely marked with a large spot of deep purple on each petal. The plant is of a diffuse habit, with ovate leaves, and terminated with numerous flowers. It is easily raised from seed, and is a great acquisition to our gardens. (Flore des Serres, foc.) 14. FU'NKIA GRANDIFLO‘ra Sieb. &• Zucc. Large-flowered Funkia.
(Liliaceae). A greenhouse plant ; growing two feet high ; with white flowers ; appearing in summer ; a native of Japan ; increased by division of the root ; cultivated in any good soil. Flore des Serres,
This is stated to be one of the most splendid plants introduced by Siebold from Japan. It flowered for the first time in Belgium, in the garden of the Horticultural Society des Pays Bas, in July, 1846. Its general appearance is the same as the other species, but it throws up a fine stem, which is clothed with flowers of the purest white. Its cultivation is the same as the other species. It will probably stand in the open ground as well as the F. japónica, but the situation should be well drained. It is readily increased by division of the roots. (Flore des Serres, foc., 1846). 15. Ribes GORDONIA NUM, (Garden hybrid.) Mr. Gordon's
Currant, (Ribesiaceæ). A hardy shrub; growing two feet high ; with salmon-colored flowers ; appearing in June ; a garden hybrid ; increased by layers. Flore des Serres, &c. Vol. II pl. 165. 1847.
A new and beautiful flowering currant produced in Belgium, between the R. sanguíneum and aureum; the flowers are produced in the same form as the first named, but the calyx is red, and the corolla yellow; it is probably as hardy as the aúreum, and will be a splendid shrub for our gardens. (Flore des Serres, foc., Nov. 1846).
Art. I. General Notices. Root-pruning, and the management of the Pear Tree. In our last number we copied an article from the Gardeners' Chronicle, (p. 280) on Root-pruning pear trees, and particularly called the attention of all fruit cultivators to the subject. The article was prepared for our May number, but was crowded out for want of room. In a subsequent number of the Chronicle, some writer, who signed himself a “Constant Reader," proposed a number of questions to the writer of the article, and doubted the possibility of raising the pear to perfection on any other stock than the pear. He states that he has been for years interested in the proper stocks for trees, and then shows his ignorance by asking, “how much the fruit partakes of the flavor of the quince"! Mr. Rivers himself took up his pen in reply, and his remarks must be satisfactory to all, that the quince stock and root-pruning are the materiel to produce pears in abundance and fine perfection.- Ed.
I feel that it is a duty I owe to your correspondents and the gardening world generally, to notice the letter of a “Constant Reader," in No. 21. It will, perhaps, be the better mode to take his questions and remarks seriatim. He says, “I have been for years much interested in the proper stock for fruit trees ; my impression is, that the pear cannot be produced in its highest state of perfection (whatever the mode of treatment or the stock used) on any other stock save the pear stock.” To this I can answer most positively that the very finest pears I have ever seen or lasted have been produced on pear trees grafted on the quince. I use no stocks but the pear and the quince; the former for orchard trees, or for those who prefer the pear stock ; the latter solely for garden trees, principally to form prolific pyramidal trees, for which they are unrivalled both in beauty and fertility. I fear “ Constant Reader" has also been constant to his home: has he never seen or tasted the magnificent pears in some of the fruit gardens near Paris ? has he never seen the pear trees in the Potagerie at Versailles ? or tasted the fruit from them ? (Mind, trees there are nearly all grafted on the quince.) If he has not done this, he has yet something to see and taste. I repeat, that I use only the pear and the quince as stocks, and I find the pear stock submit as kindly to root-pruning (or even more so) as the quince. I can illustrate the good effects of root-pruning very forcibly in my specimen orchard, and at any time your correspondent may see and believe; however, I must tell my tale, and then proceed.
About thirty years ago, my father planted some rows of pear trees in a portion of the nursery, then a recent purchase ; these were all common :sorts of pears, standards, grafted as usual on the pear stock. They grew most luxuriantly for some eight or ten years, when their leaves began to change from their usually vivid green to a light yellow; in a year or two, this yellow tint increased till their foliage was really of a bright straw color; the trees soon after all died, so that, at the end of fifteen years, not a tree was left on this portion of the nursery, the subsoil of which, I must add, is hard white clay, full of chalk stones ; this peculiar soil occupies a very small space, not more than a quarter of an acre, as the neighboring soil is a tender, sandy loam.
When I came to years of thinking, the untimely fate of these pear trees was often present to my mind, for I remembered so vividly with what pleasure I had filled my pockets from them. I at that time also found that, to be able to know any thing about pears, I must have a specimen tree of every kind that I cultivated. No other but this “pestilent spot” of earth happened to be just the place most eligible as a site for my specimen ground. What could I do? I did not then think of root-pruning, but I thought that I should find some way or other to avert the untimely fate of my trees; I therefore planted them in the usual way, digging the holes about two feet in depth, and mixing some manure and compost with the earth taken from the holes, but leaving the hard clayey subsoil below, to the depth of two feet, untouched. I watched my trees narrowly after four or five years, as I then expected to see traces of the effects of the clay soil upon them. I think some eight years must have passed and gone before their foliage turned yellow. My first thought said, remove them to a different site and soil; second thought, take them up and give them some fresh compost, they will last a few years, and you can then find a good place for them; third thought, if you can renovate them for a few years by taking them up and replanting, why not do this periodically, so as to keep your trees healthy; the site is good,-make the soil equally so; fourth thought, what occasion is there to remove the tree ? cut its principal roots, leaving those that are fibrous; and so I became a pruner of roots. Now for effects, and * A Constant Reader" must recollect that any day the Eastern Counties rail will carry him either to Harlow or Sawbridgeworth, each equally convenient, for a few shillings, to see with his own eyes all that I state.
In my specimen ground are several standard pear trees from eight to ten years old ; these terminate long rows of standards, left to grow as nature dictates, both root and branch, except occasional thinning of their heads. These, it must be recollected, are among my root-pruned specimen trees, a great number of which are from twelve to fifteen years old. They have had their roots pruned three times within these eight years, the last time in December, 1844. They are now full of health, and foliage, and fruit,-in fact, all that I can wish them to be. The standard trees, with roots unpruned, have their leaves yellow, and are, I fear, hastening to death.
I now proceed to give a list of such sorts of pears that on my soil are decidedly higher in flavor when grafted on the quince, and not, (as your correspondent almost ludicrously says) “partaking of the flavor of the quince." Pray, have you or Mr. Thompson ever ate a quince-flavored pear? that is, a pear having such a flavor from being grafted on the quince, (as I well know there are many pears with a very odd flavor.) Does the Ribstone Pippin taste of the Crab because it is grafted upon it? Does the peach acquire the flavor of the Mussel plum because it is budded upon it? Dues the Green Gage ever taste sour and austere? and yet it is almost invariably