Imágenes de páginas

Other Mosses at the Base are Hy'pnum Schreberi, (also alpine,) cordifolium, splendens, (also alpine,) tamariscinum, minútulum, pseudo-plumosum, salebròsum, ruscifolium, triquetrum, chrysophy'llum, confértum, hispidulum, recúrvans, Crista-castrénsis, Haldiànum, &c.; Néckera pennata, most abundant, and fruiting finely on the trunks of the trees ; Néckera viticulosa, very abundant, but rarely fruiting; Néckera sericea, Pterigynándrum hirtéllum and intricatum, Leucodon bráchypus, Mníum punctatum, most abundant and fine, both at the base and alpine ; Mnium affine and hórnum, Bry'um ròseum, ventricosum, nútans, cespitósum, Aulacómnion palustre, Bartrámia pomiformis, var. crispa, Bartrámia fontana, most luxuriant, and sometimes a foot long ; Funària hygrométrica, Poly'trichum piliferum, junipirenum, commune, formosum, brevicáule, undulatum, Diphy'scium foliòsum, abundant and fine, Orthótrichum crispum, Hutchinsiae, strangulatum, Drummóndia clavellàta, Tétraphis pellucida, Fontinalis antipyrérica and squamosa, fruiting abundantly, Grim'mia apocarpa, Anictángium ciliàtum, (the common American rock variety,) Trichostomum tórtile, Dicranum glaucum, undulatum, scopàrium, congéstum, heteromállum, (also alpine,) Cerátodon purpureus, Sphagnum cymbifolium, acutifolium and squarròsum. fruiting most luxuriantly, &c.

Of the above, Hy'pnum spléndens and Crísta-castrénsis are most abundant, the former fruiting finely in many places, and the latter almost every where covering the ground, and the fallen trunks in the forest, and fruiting most abundantly.


(Species of Jungermánnia of Linn. Hooker, &c.) Plagiochila porelloides, Lindenb. Musc. All. 220. Base.

spinulòsa, Nees. Mont. Musc. All. 219, Base. Scapania undulata, Nees.

nemorosa, Nees. Base. Alpine. Jungermánnia obtusifolia, Hook. Musc. All. 230. barbàta, Schreb. var. quinquedentata. Base.

var. Floerkii. Alpine. setiformis, Ehr. Musc. All. 238. Alpine. inflàta, Huds. Alpine. Taylóri, Hook. Musc. All. 227. Alpine. Base. Schradèri, Mart. Musc. All. 235. Base. Alpine. ventricòsa, Dicks. Base. curvifolia, Dicks. Musc. All. 242. Michaúxii, Weber. Musc. All. 237. Base. Alpine. pumila? With. Base. divaricàta, Smith. var. rubricaulis, Nees. Base. bicuspidata, L. Musc. All. 241. Base. connivens, Dicks. Musc. All. 246. Base. Alpine. trichophy'lla, L. Musc. All. 245. Base.

Gymnomitrium concinnatum, Corda. Musc. All. 217. Alpine.
Sarcoscyphus Ehrhárti, Corda. Musc. All. 216. Base. Alpine.
Trichocolea tomentélla, Nees. Musc. All. 255. Base.
Ptilidium ciliàre, Nees. Musc. All. 256.
Radula pállens, Sullivant, Musc. All. 261. Base.
Madotheca platyphy'lla, Dumort. Musc. All. 263.
Fruilania dilatata, Necs. Musc. All. 267. Base.

Tamarisci, Nces. Base.
Herpetium réptans, Nees. Musc. All. 254. Base.

trilobatum, Nees. Musc. All. 251. Base.

deflexum, Nces. Base. Pellia epiphy'lla, Nees. Musc. All. 284. Base. Alpine. Aneura multifida, Dumort. Musc. All, 278. Base.

The following additional species I have collected in Ipswich and its vicinity :

Jungermánnia gphágni, Dicks. Musc. All. 229.

setácea, Weber. Musc. All. 243.
Lophocólea bidentata, Nees.
Cheiloscyphus ascendens, Hook. f Wils. Musc. All. 247.
Geocalyx graveolens, Nees. Musc. All. 249.
Rádula complanata, Dumort. Musc. All. 259.
Calopogeia Trichomanis, Corda. Musc. All. 257.
Hóllia Lyéllii, Endlicher. Musc. All. 281.
Aneúra palmata, Nees. Musc. All. 279.
Metzgéria furcata, Nees. Musc. All. 283.

The following species of the White Mountains, I have found near Ipswich :

Plagiochila porelloides, Scapània nemorosa, Jungermánnia Schraderi, bicuspidáta, connivens, trichophy'lla, Sarcoscy'phus Ehrhárti, Trichocòlea tomeniélla, Ptilidium cilidre, Madothèca platyphy'lla, Frullània dilatata, Tamarisci, Péllia epiphy'lla, Aneúra multifida, Herpètium trilobatum, Jungermánnia curvifolia, divaricata.

In Ipswich and its vicinity, I have collected the following Mosses not recorded in Mr. Russell's Catalogue of the Mosses of Massachusetts :

Hy'pnum denticulatum, scitum, and várium, Léskea obscura and rostrata, Bry'um ventricosum, Racomítrium sudéticum and aciculare, Grimmia Pennsylvánica, Dicranum várium, Poly/trichum grácile, Menzies, Orthótrichum Ludwigii and strangulatum. (Also Buxbáumia aphylla in great abundance in many places.)

Ipswich, March, 1847.


Art. I. A Report on the Trees and Shrubs, growing natur

ally in the forests of Massachusetts : published agreeably to an order of the Legislature. By the Commissioners on the Zoological and Botanical Survey of the State. 1 Vol. Svo. pp. 547. Boston. Dutton & Wentworth, State printers. 1846.

This long anticipated and very valuable document, prepared by George B. Emerson, Esq., has fulfilled the expectations of those, who, more or less familiar with the subject, yet needed the information therein contained, in a condensed and plain form; in such a form, indeed, as would render it useful to the man of practical business, and as a reference to him of more studious habits. Knowing the method employed to render this report as practical and as acurate as possible, we awaited in patient expectation its publication, feeling that nothing would be lost by delay. Considering the circumstances under which it has issued, we can only be surprised that so much has been done, and done so well. The author is a gentleman of most assiduous habits of life, and engaged, for the most part, in instruction of a very high order, demanding his undivided attention while so employed. He is favorably known as engaged in many popular schemes of education, and as the patron of sound learning in its every department, through his personal influence, as well as by his ready pen. Amidst the variety of reading, which now presents itself to the scholar, and besides these other and primary pursuits, he has found some brief moments in which nature, in her many departments of study, has been also regarded. With an ever open eye and a finely cultivated, as well as natural taste for the beautiful and the grand, for objects minute or great, he has rendered himself not only an amateur, but in no small measure, a practical naturalist. A familiarity with such studies is not to be obtained merely from books, but from observation and personal inspection ; of such a kind as the volume before us bears ample record. To collect and to condense the mass of information laid before the public on this subject, is in itself no small labor. To simplify, classify and render it delightfully interesting and instructive, is something still greater. In these respects, the report most happily coincides with the practically scientific report on “ Insects injurious to vegetation,” prepared by Dr. Harris, itself also a State document, and connected with the general subject of the State survey.

Mr. Emerson, in his letter to Governor Briggs, tells us that

“ The accompanying Report concludes the work of the Commissioners on the Zoological and Botanical Survey of the State. It has been prepared with especial reference to the instructions of Gov. Everett, accompanying his commission, and directing the Commissioners to keep carefully in view the economical relations of every subject of their inquiry.' I trust it may do something to promote the agricultural benefit of the Commonwealth,' by leading citizens who are land-owners to a consideration of the importance of continuing, improving, and enlarging the forests of the State.

“ It is due to the Legislature, and to yourself, that I should make some apology for the tardy appearance of my Report. It is well known to your Excellency, that ever since the commission was issued, in 1837, I have been occupied, for ten months of every year, in a pursuit which left me no leisure for the Survey, and little for reading, on subjects connected with it. I have, therefore, been able to give to it only the summer vacation, and of that a considerable portion has, every year, been necessarily taken up with other things. Under these circumstances, it was hardly possible for me to give to the Survey the attention it deserved, and let my Report appear at an earlier period.” p. 1.

We hinted at the method of arrangement: and of the facility afforded to the reader in making the treatise of practical value:

“ In order that this Report should answer the ends for which the Survey was ordered, the descriptions of the Trees and Shrubs are arranged according to the Natural System. This has been done, not from undervaluing the artificial system of Linnæus, which must still continue of use in aiding to find the name of a plant and its place in the Natural System, but from a conviction of the incomparably greater value of the latter. The artificial system is based essentially on distinctions drawn from the stamens and pistils alone. The Natural System, on the contrary, takes into consideration not one part only, but every part and whatever relates to it,—the seed, from the development of its embryo to its germination, the growth, formation and arrangement of the wood, bark, buds and leaves, and the flower and fruit. It is found that plants which resemble each other in the external forms of their more essential parts, have a similar resemblance in properties and

uses, and require similar modes of management and culture. The adoption of the Natural System is, therefore, particularly important in a comparatively new country like ours.

“ The uses of the natural arrangement in abridging the labor of acquisition and aiding the memory of the learner are most important, and its advantages to cultivators, to physicians,—to all who are seeking to enlarge their knowledge of the useful or dangerous properties of plants, that they may be able to avail themselves of the one, or counteract the other, to gain materials for the arts, or remedies or antidotes in medicine,– are too many to enumerate and too obvious to be further insisted upon.” p. 3.

The reader will perceive at once the value of the observations found in this volume, when he is made acquainted with the means to obtain them :

“The descriptions of the species of all the trees, and nearly all the shrubs, are my own, except where I have expressly given credit to others. To collect my materials, I have scoured the forests in almost every part of the State, from the western hills of Berkshire to Martha's Vineyard, and from the banks of the Merrimack to the shores of Buzzard's and Narragansett Bays. The leisure of several summers was first spent in ascertaining what the ligneous plants of Massachusetts are, and how they are distributed. If I have not discovered new species, I have found new localities for several oaks, willows, poplars, pines, and birches, and some others of less importance, and have thus enlarged the Flora of the State. That some species have escaped me is altogether probable, as, even in the summer of 1845, 1 found the Red Birch growing abundantly on a branch of the Merrimack, some hundreds of miles farther north than it had previously been noticed by any botanist.

“ After having become familiar with the trees and their localities, I began to collect materials for their description ; and every important tree and shrub has been described from copious notes taken under or near the growing plant itself. A point with which I have each year been more and more struck, is the beauty of our native trees and of the climbing vines and undergrowth associated with them. I have thrown aside much which I had written upon this point. Utilitarian readers will perhaps find too much still retained. My apology for not pruning more severely must be found in my sincere conviction, that associations with the beauty of trees about our country homes enter deeply into the best elements of our character ; and a hope that what I have written may induce some of my readers to plant trees, for the purpose of increasing the beauty, and the appearance of seclusion and quiet, of the homes of their wives and children.

A Report upon the Botany of the State is certainly very incomplete, without even an enumeration of the Algæ, the Mosses, the Lichens, and the Fungi ; and, with a hope to prevent this omission, I furnished myself, at the commencement of this Survey, with several somewhat expensive

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