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more particular notice, the difference, both in form and color, is quite apparent: there is less yellow than in the Baldwin, and the skin has a smooth and more glossy surface. In form, it is more oval than the Baldwin, narrowing little towards each end. The flesh is more tender, and not so crisp as the Baldwin. It deserves to rank among our best winter varieties. Tree vigorous and productive.
Size, large, about three inches broad, and two and three quarters deep: Form, roundish oval, regular, slightly narrowing towards each end: Skin, fair, smooth, shining, yellow in the shade, bright red in the sun, and nearly covered with stripes of brilliant crimson, with a patch of russet around the stem: Stem, short, about half an inch in length, slender, obliquely and rather deeply inserted in a narrow, contracted cavity: Eye, medium size, partially open, and moderately sunk in a round, open, smooth, and abruptly depressed basin : Flesh, yellowish, fine, soft, and very tender : Juice, plentiful, rich, and high flavored : Core, medium size, rather close : Seeds, medium size, dark brown. Ripe in January, and keeps
Art. V. A Brief Account of Three Varieties of Apples. By
ASAHEL Foote, Esq., Williamstown, Mass.
I HEREWITH send you specimens of three varieties of the Apple,-known here as the Congress, the Redstreak, and the Vanderspeigle. I name them in the order of their size, beginning with the largest.
The two former have been in cultivation here for fifty years : the latter is understood to have originated, within that period, on the grounds of John Vanderspeigle, Esq., in Lansingburgh, New York.
The Congress Apple (of this neighborhood,) is a common and well known variety in Cayuga County, New York, and is probably the apple described by Downing, as the Twenty Ounce, or Cayuga Redstreak. It is in high estimation here,
a cooking and eating apple, and, in our markets,
takes precedence even of the R. I. Greening, and Æsopus Spitzenberg The tree is of medium vigor, but a great and constant bearer. The size of the fruit may be judged of from the fact, that seventy-two apples, taken seriatim, last autumn, measured a bushel. Season November to March. The specimens now presented are scarcely medium.
The Redstreak, (fig. 18,) is also a winter fruit, of large size, and high reputation, but very different in its characteristics from the former. Considering its excellence, I can hard
Fig. 18. Redstreak.
ly suppose it to be wholly unknown to our cultivators; yet my search has been in vain to find its accurate portrait in any of our pomological authors. The trees of this variety attain a large size, and produce abundantly in alternate years. On old subjects, and under poor cultivation, a rather large per centage of the fruit will be imperfect; but, as a compensation for this, the refuse yields a finer quality of cider and vinegar than any other variety grown in this section. Season, Dec. to March. The specimens are above an average, but not of the largest size.
The Vanderspeigle, (not heretofore introduced to the public, I think,) has been in cultivation here some years, and is highly esteemed by such as prefer a fruit of rather unusual tartness. The trees are strong growers, and constant and abundant bearers, and the fruit is uncommonly fair and perfect, and keeps as well as either of the preceding. From the figure, color, size, and flavor of this apple, I have little doubt that it originated from a seed of the old "Red and Green Seek-no-further.” It is, however, superior to that variety in several respects,-being more prolificmore juicy-better for cooking—and a longer keeper. I think it well worthy of cultivation.
I have purposely omitted saying any thing of the form, color, consistence and flavor of these apples, in order that these particulars (with drawings) might be supplied by yourself, in case you deem them worthy of notice in your Magazine.
I am now engaged in investigating the history of the Congress and Redstreak, and, if my inquiries lead to any satisfactory results, you shall be apprised of them at an early day.
P. S. Having a convenient opportunity, I send you three more Redstreaks,-a Pound Royal,-a Swaar,-and a Green Newtown Pippin. The Pippin is the smallest, the Swaar, yellow-the Pound Royal, conical and irregular. I send these as fair specimens of those varieties here, under ordinary cultivation which, I might add with too much truth, is no cultivation at all. The Pound Royal varies much in shape, and this specimen is among the most irregular. This and the Pippin have much more color than is usual.
The Redstreaks now sent are fair specimens for color, and of rather unusual size. To what I said before respecting this apple, I can now add, that it is highly esteemed for cooking, and that the trees are among our very largest growers.
Further investigation has pretty fully convinced me that this is the true Wine Apple, best described by Floy, in Lindley's Guide to the Orchard.
The Pippin and Swaar are with us but moderate growers, and the crops of fruit not heavy. The Pound Royal trees are large, and fine bearers, and the fruit is much esteemed.
Williamstown, Feb. 27, 1847.
We are greatly indebted to our correspondent, Mr. Foote, for the above communication, and also for the specimens of fruit which accompanied his letter. But, unfortunately for us, those which were forwarded with the first letter, by some mistake, fell into the hands of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, and, although we had the pleasure of tasting them, we had no opportunity to make drawings or accurate descriptions; consequently, we are unable to say much respecting them, other than that the Congress, so called, is undoubtedly the same as the Twenty Ounce, which Mr. Downing has described under the latter name, from our account of it in the Magazine (Vol. X. p. 210). The specimens, though overripe, confirmed our good opinion of this large and superior fruit. The Vanderspeigle seemed to somewhat resemble the old Pearmain.
The Redstreak is an apple of large size and much beauty, -indeed rather too large to become a popular fruit-and possesses a rich, sprightly and aromatic flavor; and to us it is quite new : after carefully examining the specimens, we compared them with several varieties described by Coxe, and though the engraving of the Wine Apple of the latter does not appear quite flat enough, the description of this author answers exceedingly well for the specimens of the Red Streak ; and we agree with our correspondent that the Redstreak is the Wine Apple, first described by Coxe, and his description adopted by Messrs. Floy and Downing. We add our own description from the specimens received :
Fruit, large, about three and a half inches broad, and two and three quarters, deep : Form, roundish oblate, flattened at both ends, and ribbed at the base : Skin, fair, smooth, with a yellow ground, marked with bright red on the sunny side, and splashed with broken stripes of deep crimson, interspersed with a few rather large russet specks: Stem, very short, about quarter of an inch, slender and deeply inserted in a large, wide, open cavity : Eye, small, open and moderately sunk in a medium sized and ribbed basin ; segments of the calyx short: Flesh, yellowish-white, rather fine, breaking and tender : Juice, abundant, sprightly, and vinous, with a high aromatic flavor : Core, medium size, very broad, open : Seeds, medium size, plump. Ripe in December and keeps till March.
The nomenclature of our apples is in great confusion, and we think it will be almost impossible to do much towards clearing it up, until the numerous varieties can be collected together, the trees brought into bearing, their characteristics studied, and a careful examination made of the fruit. This we hope to do, having upwards of two hundred sorts, which will soon enable us to commence our labors.—Ed.
Art. VI. On the Cultivation and Treatment of Cape Heaths
(Ericas). By John Cadness, Gardener to Mr. J. L. L. F. Warren, Brighton.
I SEND you an article upon the cultivation of that splendid, but, I am sorry to say, much neglected tribe of plants, Cape Heaths, a genus, all the species of which are eminently beautiful and worthy the most assiduous cultivation, if you should think my remarks worth a place in your magazine.
Heaths are all of them especial favorites of mine, and wherever I have had opportunity, I have paid considerable attention to their cultivation, and I am greatly surprised that, when such good specimens of other green-house plants are grown in the neighborhood and exhibited in Boston, no attempt has been made to grow a collection of the finer varieties of this plant: there is, I know, some difficulty in managing some of the best kinds, but I have not the least doubt, that, if proper provision were made for them, and proper care bestowed upon them, they could be sufficiently well grown to make them one of the greatest ornaments of the green-house. The great difficulty in cultivating these plants with success, is the extreme cold of winter and the extreme heat of summer; the consequence of which is, in the former case, the plants are exposed to a great degree of fire heat, and a too warm and variable atmosphere at a season when they should be kept cool and perfectly at rest; for they, like all other plants, must have their dormant season or winter; for they can never be expected to flower finely and as they should do, when they are growing more or less the year round. But in order to give