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(1833,) owing to what cause I do not know; but probably to the drought in the early part of the summer : I have named it the Brougham pear, a sample sent by me to Lord Brougham having been approved by his lordship.

6. BRINGEWOOD Pear. Fruit middle-sized, pyriform. Eye open, with the segments of the calyx prominent. Stalk long and rather slender. Skin yellowish-brown, almost covered with russet. Flesh yellowish-white, a little gritty near the core, the rest buttery, rich, and very excellent, with something of the peculiar flavor of the Monarch Pear. Well deserving of cultivation. Season, end of October till beginning of December

Note.This variety did not prove nearly as good in the following year, as in that in which the sample was sent to the society; it was nevertheless a good pear, though inferior to others of the same season of maturity.

7. Moccas Pear. Fruit middle-sized, obovate, with a short stalk. Eye somewhat open and very slightly sunk. Skin brown. Flesh inclining to yellow, melting, juicy, rich, and high flavored, resembling, in this respect, the Monarch Pear, and almost equal to that very excellent variety. Season, December.

Note. This is, I think, a very fine pear, but the sample sent was not equal in quality to the former produce. It is somewhat singular that all my pears ripened much later, and less perfectly in the last (1831,) than in the three preceding cold and wet seasons : probably owing to the paralyzing effects of the very severe frost of the 7th of May, which destroyed almost all the blossoms of the pears and apples in the surrounding orchards. Tree of excessively rapid growth, and very productive of blossom, which I have reason to believe capable of bearing, without injury, very unfavorable weather.

8. Broom-Park Pear. Fruit nearly middle-sized, roundish. Eye in a moderate-sized hollow. Stalk about an inch in length, moderately thick. Skin entirely covered with cinnamon-colored russet. Flesh yellowish, melting, juicy, with something of a melon flavor, sugary and rich Its very peculiar flavor may be said to partake of the melon and pine-apple. Season, January. A sort highly deserving of cultivation.

Note.The singular mixture of flavor in this pear was

noticed here as well as in London. The tree is fine, and has borne well in two seasons in which alone its fruit has existed.

9. CROFT-CASTLE PEAR. Fruit middle-sized, oval. Eye open in a shallow depression, with the segments of the calyx reclining. Stalk about an inch and a half in length, rather slender, and somewhat obliquely inserted. Skin pale yellow, not glossy, but rough with elevated dots, and partially russeted. Flesh whitish, a little gritty, but melting and very juicy, rich and sugary. An excellent pear. Season, October.

Note.-A variety of dwarfish growth, but very productive of fruit.

10. Eyewood Pear. In shape and size very similar to an Autumn Bergamot, but of a deeper cinnamon russet color. Flesh yellowish-white, melting, buttery, juicy, and very highflavored. It is doubtful whether it would be exceeded by Gansel's Bergamot in a better season for standards than that of 1831, when the above description was made. Season, October or November.

Note.--In 1833, when other varieties of pears did not attain their usual excellence in Herefordshire, this was found to be very good. The tree is of a very free growth, and has borne well during the last four years, the period commencing with its existence, as regards a bearing state. The sample sent was below the


size. 11. DUNMORE PEAR. Fruit about the size of a Brown Beurré, obovate. Eye open, slightly depressed. Stalk about an inch in length, of medium thickness, rather fleshy at its junction. Skin brownish-red next the sun; yellowish with a scattering of brown where shaded. Flesh yellowish-white, melting and extremely juicy, sugary and rich; a little gritty near the core, but on the whole a most excellent pear. Season, end of September or beginning of October.

Note.—This variety is as large, I think, as the Brown Beurré, and I have never tasted the last mentioned sort better than the Dunmore. When it has remained to ripen and grow yellow upon the tree, I have thought it the most melting and best pear of its early season. The birds are apt to destroy most of the crop prematurely. The tree is fine and perfectly healthy. Grafts of it, which were insterted into stocks two years only ago, afforded an abundant blossom in the last spring, and are now bearing fruit ; though the weather in part of the spring was extremely unfavorable, and destroyed every blossom of the more delicate varieties. The trees are of a very rapid growth, and the varieties appear to be extremely well adapted to cold and late situations.

12. MONARCH Pear. Fruit of large size, obovate. The stalk is, in all cases, remarkably short and thick. The eye is open, in a shallow depression. The general color is yellowishbrown, tinged with red next the sun, and everywhere interspersed with roundish pale gray flecks. Flesh yellowish, melting, buttery, and rich; slightly musky, but not disagreeably so, and this is the less perceptible in a dryer season than the last. The tree grows vigorously, and is a most abundant bearer as a standard, the fruit from which is much higher flavored than from a wall. January is its season for becoming fit for use.

Note.—I had this year (1834,) a sufficient quantity of the Monarch Pear to enable me to ascertain the specific gravity of its juice, which is 1096; that is, fifteen above the Stire Apple, and about that which a dissolution of 2 lbs. 6 oz. of sugar would give to 8 lbs. of water. I doubt whether the specific gravity of the juice of the grapes, which afford the best French wines, be much greater, and the taste and flavor of the expressed juice of the Monarch Pear appear to me to be very delightful. I am planting it very largely for Perry, in perfect confidence that sixpence per imperial quart of its expressed juice will afford a very high remunerating price. I imagined, till the present season, that the excessively vigorous growth of the variety, would render it unproductive as a walltree, but grafts inserted three years ago are now bearing fruit, and have formed a most abundant blossom for the next year.

From these descriptions, and the notes thereto, the Pomologist may form a good estimate of Mr. Knight's seedlings. Of the twelve, only five or six have yet fruited in American collections; one of these was the Dunmore, which Mr. Knight thinks fully equal to the Brown Beurré.

But the Monarch, which Mr. Knight so named, (in honor of William the IVth,) because he was “under conviction that, for the climate of England, it stands without an equal,” has not yet fruited—that is the true Monarch. Some two or three spurious varieties sold under this name, have borne a few pears, sufficient to decide their utter worthlessness, and it yet remains a matter of doubt, whether the true variety has been introduced. We have reason to believe, that it has not, only in one or two instances, and that nearly all the trees which have been disseminated are incorrect. Our principal reasons are, that the trees sold for the Monarch, are of weak and slender growth, straggling habit, and with dark-colored wood. Now it will be noted that Mr. Knight says it is of “excessively vigorous growth,” so much so, that he feared it would "render it unproductive; but grafts inserted three years are now bearing fruit, and have formed abundant blossoms for next year.” Mr. Thompson states that the true Monarch may be known from the spurious one, by its " yellowish wood.” These characteristics at once settle the question, that those trees with small wood and slender growth and dark-colored shoots, are not true.

We saw the tree in bearing in the society's garden ; and from a nursery within three miles of Chiswick, we purchased trees, grown from scions received from Mr. Thompson: and they correspond in every particular with Messrs. Knight's and Thompson's descriptions. The trees are exceedingly vigorous, of upright habit, and with yellow or pale yellowish olive-colored wood: They will, we hope, produce a few specimens this year, when we trust we may have the opportunity to show a pear, whose reputation ranks so high, but which, from a series of errors originating with Mr. Knight's gardener, has for so long time remained unknown to cultivators.

Art. III. A Way to keep a Record of the Place of every Tree

in an Orchard, by which Labels are dispensed with. By T. S. HUMRICKHOUSE, Coshocton, Ohio.

HAVING observed that much has been lately said about labels for fruit trees, I send you herewith a map or plot of a section of my experimental orchard on Whiteyes Creek in Coshocton County, Ohio, comprising about the one fourth of it,

to show the manner in which I keep the record of the place of each tree. The plat and list subjoined will sufficiently explain each other, and the whole plan-a plan which may be carried out to any extent. You will perceive that, to find a tree of any given variety in the orchard, you look at the number placed before its name in the list, and find the corresponding number on the plat. The number set after the name in the list denotes the number of trees of that variety :

O 56

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
55 55 55 55 54 54 53 52 52

0 52

46 47

ÅT À 48 48 49

48 49 49 49 49 50 51

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1 15 15 14 14 13 12 12 11 11 10 No. Trees. No.

Trees, 1. Hubbardston Nonsuch, 2 19. Catharine Pear, . 1 10. Zoar Phenix, 1 20. Pound Pear, .

2 11. Red Everlasting, .2 21. Jas. Taylor's Pear, 2 12. Cathead, . 2 22. Borsdorffer,

1 13. C. Down's large fall red, 1 23. Black Apple,

1 14. Blickensderffer, . 2 24. Sops of Wine, 15. Pickman Pippin, 2 25. Knight's Grange, 2 16. Poland Red Winter, 1 26. Romankirgger, 2 17. Seckel Pear, .

1 27. Newtown Spitzenberg, 2 18. Summer Golden Pippin, 1 28. Summer Queen, . 3 VOL. XIII. --NO, IV.


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