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a hundred pages are added, upon the cultivation of fruits, accompanied with engravings of several of the most approved kinds of apples, pears, cherries, plums, strawberries, &c.

The plan is an exceedingly good one, and an almanac of this kind must prove an exceedingly good remembrancer to every amateur cultivator.

Art. VII. Proceedings of the National Convention of Far

mers, Gardeners, and Silk Culturists, held in Mechanics' Hall, in the City of New York, on the 12th, 13th, and 14th days of October, 1846, in connexion with the Nineteenth Annual Fair of the American Institute. Pamphlet. 8vo. pp. 50. New York. 1846.

We are deprived of room, to notice this interesting pamphlet as we could wish. It is filled with the reports of committees upon the great subject of diffusing Agricultural information, the culture of silk, &c., and we can only advise its perusal by all who have their interests and the good of the country at heart.

Art. VIII. The Chemical Principles of the Rotation of

Crops. Pronounced before the American 'Agricultural Association, March 4, 1846. By D. P. GARDNER, M D. Quarto Pamphlet, pp. 18. New York. 1846.

DR. GARDNER is well known to the agricultural community, for his exertions in bringing before them information upon all subjects connected with the art of cultivation. But a short time since, we reviewed the Farmers' Dictionary, a very excellent work, published under his supervision. We have now before us a most excellent essay of the rotation of crops upon chemical principles ; being an address pronounced before the American Agricultural Association, of New York. We need only add, that it is well worthy the attention of every intelligent farmer.


Art. 1. Domestic Notices.


Splendid Plantation of Pear Trees.-Edward King, Esq., of Newport, Rhode Island, planted, the last spring, an orchard comprising about four hundred pear trees, all of the choicest Belgian and other modern improved varieties. The trees were of extra large size, eight to ten feet in height, and suitable, therefore, to come into bearing the ensuing season, and many of them produced flowers the first season. Notwithstanding the drought, there were but six that failed in growing. These trees were obtained from the Messrs. Prince of Long Island, and this orchard is probably the most valuable that has been formed in New England of this class of fruit.— Yours, P., January, 1847.

Remarks on the Hog Artichoke.— I was very glad, Mr. Editor, to find, in the pages of your last number, the article of your correspondent, Dr. Ward, on the differences of variety, as he esteems it, of the two plants of Heliánthus, growing in his garden. Nor am I, for one, sorry, that his manifest

slip of the pen,” or use of the corrective spirit of your several correspondents, in showing the artichoke to be no solanum, which every one knew before, called forth from Professor Ward the article with which he has filled a few of your pages. For my own part, I am bold to declare, that, could any thing induce him to give you an article occasionally, we should be no losers. Among the many curious native and introduced plants of his adopted home, he might find much to tell us, in our boreal clime, on the varied subjects of horticultural lore, or floricultural experience. And as the Dr. is now in for it, especially in defence of the Hog Artichoke, I trust that he will favor us with some seeds, roots, or the like, by which we can judge for ourselves also, whether Torrey's and Gray's “ determination” should be “quietly” received or no. I have always taken a fancy to the Jerusalem artichoke, on account of its fine head of flowers: I should like to cultirate an acquaintance with this variety for the better reason, too, that it is more showy in that respect. Agriculturally, its merits as a root would be better tested at the south than with us : but, as another sort of sunflower, why may not we hail it as an accession to our gardens, that it may show its honest disk among the several sorts of Helianthus, which are now cultivated with care. Will not the Dr. think of you, Mr. Editor, in a few seeds ? - Turnsole.

William S. Sullivant, Esq., communicated to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Boston) through the Corresponding Secretary, a paper entitled “ Contributions to the Bryology and Hepaticology of North America," with drawings of some species: as Phyllogonium Norwegicum, (Brıdel,) a curious and rare moss, recently detected in Ohio : Fissidens minutulus (Sullivant) : Fissidens exiguus, (Sullivant) : singularly minute and delicate species of mosses: Schistidum serratum, (Hooker and Wilson,) not un

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common in Massachusetts also, and a moss of interesting character: Aneura sessilis, (Sullivant,) Marchantia disjuncta, (Sulliv.) of the order Hepaticeæ ; also, Notothylas valvata and N. orbicularis, (Sulliv.) the two latter singular hepatic plants of much interest. See Proceedings of Academy, p. 35, &c.

Professor Gray (of Harvard University) communicated the characters of some new genera and species of Compositæ from Texas, viz., Vernonia Lindheimeri (Gr. and Engelman, Pl. Lindh. med.): Ageratum Wrightii, (Torrey and Gray, fl. ined.): Brickellia cylindracea (Gr. and Engel., PI. Lindh. ined.): Lindheimera texana, (Gray,): Keerlia bellidifolia (Gr. and Engel., l. c.,): Tetragonothica texana, (Gr. and Engel., l. c.,): Barratia calva (Gray.) See Proceedings Amer. Acad., pp. 46, 48.—R.

Pleasant Experiment with Andrómeda calyculàta.-It is well known, that the flower buds of many of our native shrubs, as well as of trees, are formed towards the end of the summer, and are in perfect readiness to expand early in the following spring. Especially is this the case with the Amentaceæ, a natural order, embracing plants furnished with aments or caikins: such as the alder, poplar, willow, and the like. These hardy and daring efforts of Flora seem to link, with an almost continuous chain, the autumn with the spring. The curious, crisped, threadlike blossoms of the witch hazel, in bunches of yellow flowers, appearing when nature is stripping the foliage from the deciduous trees, and when the cold winds of November are reminding us of the snows and storms of winter, scarcely wither on their parent branches, before we find these amentaceous plants pushing off their envelopes, and making ready for the auspicious gales of April and May. Any one who may go into our swamps in midwinter will notice the white and silken flower buds of the swamp willow, with its black and loosened scalelike covering failing to protect what it seemed intended to cover; and by every brook side, the already pendent aments of the black alder will attract attention not less than the similar aments of the hazel nut by every wall, or on the borders of ill cultivated fields. It seems to require but a moderate continuance of vernal heat to set free the constraint laid on these flower buds ; to loosen and elongate the spikes, and to shed in profusion, all around, the golden farina with which they are charged. The beauty of the willow, when in blossom, is well known to every lover of wild nature; and its agreeable sweetness is reeognized by the bees and many winged insects, which, with a rare sagacity and instinct, know the times appointed for their renewed labors.

Having frequently expanded these aments in winter, by cutting branches of the shrubs, and placing them in water in a warm room, I was induced to try what effect the same treatment would produce on the already formed flower buds of the andromeda. This plant or low shrub grows in every sphagnous swamp, and in overflowed meadows, and gives peculiar beauty to every spring by its unique and regularly set rows of white bells on its slender and leafy branches. Its leaves are sempervirent, and thus remain all winter, turning rather brown on approach of cold. Each flower springs out from the axil of one of the smaller leaves, which invest the terminal racemes, and is of an ovate, cylindrical form, and of delicate whiteness. Some twigs gathered this winter on December twenty-ninth, 1846, expanded their blossoms on January twelfth, 1847, and other fresh twigs, put into water on January twenty-third, are now in full beauty of expansion, (February 8th). Thus those who are fond of winter bouquets need be in no lack of at least one sort of beautiful flowers, not inferior, in any degree, to many of the Cape heaths, which are so deservedly prized for their elegance and rarity. I have tried a similar experiment on the buds of Rhododendron máximum, but without success. Perhaps Rhodora canadensis may be made to expand in the same manner: a trial would do no harm.

Some fresh tufts or plants of Lycopodium dendroideum, a few twigs of Prinos glaber, a bit of Kálmia latifolia, and, if possible, a piece of Lycopodium clavatum, and its more beautiful cospecies Lyc. lucidulum, with straight handsome pieces of Andrómeda calyculata, (the little plant under our present notice,) and, if you like, a few of the silken aments of Salix eriocéphala, let us add also the scarlet berries of Prinos verticillatus, will make up for you, reader, no mean mantel-ornament to remind you, as a bouquet to be kept in water for a few weeks, of those pleasanter days which are coming, when, from the lingering beauties of Flora in midwinter, you need no longer cull with so much effort or care.--An Admirer of all Seasons, February 8, 1847.

The Winter in Georgia.—The winter with us has been, thus far, mild. No very killing frosts till January 8th, when we had the thermometer down to 10°. On January 1, I noticed these in flower in the open garden ;Irish whin in full beauty ; a few monthly roses and little chrysanthemums, the upper flowers and stems killed by previous frosts at 24°; two or three varieties of narcissus polyanthus; Viola odorata and tricolor; purple and pink verbena ; sweet alyssum, dandelion, white and single hyacinths, Chinese pinks.-Yours, M. A. W., Athens, Ga., Jan. 12, 1837.

Horticulture in Ohio.—There has, within the last few years, been awakened, within this region of country, the most intense interest on the subject of Horticulture, and Ohio is yet destined to be a great fruit country. She has such a variety of soils, that there are situations congenial to almost every variety of fruit. The blight of the Pear tree is one of the most fatal diseases that afflict her fruit.

I wish you all possible success in improving the taste of the public.Yours, very respectfully, C. Springer, Meadow Farm, Ohio, Feb. 1847. (We shall be glad to hear from our correspondent as often as leisure will permit.-Ed.]

Maine Pomological Society.We are glad to learn that our Pomological friends in Maine have recently organized a society under the above name, with the object in view of bringing into notice the new seedling fruits which abound in the orchards of that State. The first meeting was held on Wednesday, January 6th, and quite a number of apples were exhibited by individuals from different parts of the State. At the second meeting, a code of by-laws was adopted, and our friend, Dr. Holmes of the Farmer, chosen Corresponding Secretary. At this meeting, a variety of apples were exhibited. We hope, through our correspondents, to keep our readers informed of the doings of the association.-Ed.

Genesee Valley Horlicultural Society.—We are happy to witness the increase of Horticultural associations in various parts of the country. In Rochester, one has been organized, which, we doubt not, will have a most beneficial effect in aiding in the dissemination of a better taste for Horticulture. Having been notified of our election as an honorary member, we have ordered our magazine to be forwarded for the Library; and we trust we may, in other ways, serve the interests of the society.- Ed.

Sleubenville Horticultural Society, Ohio.—The Buckeye State is treading closely on the heels of New York and the Eastern States. Societies have been organized in Cincinnati, Cleaveland, and Columbus, and now we have to add to the list that of Steubenville. Our name having been enrolled among the honorary members, we trust that the offer of our Magazine will not be an unacceptable addition to the Library.-Ed.

Heliánthus divaricàlus and giganteus are both old and familiar acquaintances of mine. The Hog artichoke is far enough from either. The whole herbage approaches nearer to tuberosus than to any of the commonly described species—but is not : the phrase should have been inversely, or ob “fusiform” : I have never known it to fail of being decidedly tuberous, never “ mere strings.”-Yours, M. A. W., Athens, Ga., Jan. 1847.

New Grape in Ohio.We have a new grape in Ohio, of merit.-—say new, because only brought particularly into notice within a few years. It is growing on a Bog Island, which is in the Ohio River, below Wheeling, and on this Island can be found this kind of grape only, and nowhere else in the state or in the west, that we know of, is the same variety. Hon. Thomas Ewing told me this day, that he ate the grapes from these vines 20 years ago, and thought them the best grapes he ever had tasted. They bear a comparison with the Catawba, but they are a red grape. The supposition is, that they grew from seeds left on the Island by the French, probably in 1800, or thereabouts, either from European grapes or raisins eaten there by them, (if the seed of a raisin will grow,) as the vines are tolerably thick set, or rather in what we may term a clump.

We are getting a number of zealous Pomologists in our state. Ohio bids fair to stand No. 1, in all respects, with her sister states.-Yours, respectfully, A. Fahneslock, Lancaster, Ohio, Feb. 1847.

Muskeet grass.-Enclosed I send you a few seeds of the Muskeet grass ; they look rather chaff-like, but they will come up. Sow them round the edge of a pot in your green-house, and prick them out in the spring.– Yours, M. A. Ward, Athens, Ga., Jan. 1847.

Deean's Superb Grape.--I have seen a report that the Deean's superb grape, exhibited by me before the Pennsylvanian Horticultural Society, was a black variety. It is a white large round fruit, very handsome tapering bunch, well shouldered and first rate flavor.

Scharges Henling is a black variety, round berries, medium size, long tapering bunches, very sweet spicy flavor. These two grapes are quite distinct from any others I have cultivated.— Yours, R. Buist, Phila. January 21, 1847. VOL. XII.-NO. UI.


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