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authors of them. Whence it comes to pass that justice seems altogether a plebeian and vulgar thing, quite below the dignity of royalty; or at least there must be two kinds of it, the one for the common people and the poor, very narrow and contracted, the other the virtue of princes, much more dignified and free, so that that only is unlawful to them which they don't like. The morals of princes being such in that region, it is not, I think, without reason that the Utopians enter into no leagues at all. Perhaps they would alter their opinion if they lived amongst us.

Summarize the attitude of the Utopians towards leagues between princes and contrast it with the attitude of European princes in the early sixteenth century. Illustrate your answer by historical references.

3. The fifth day of September began the King's visitation at Paul's and all images pulled down; and the ninth day of the same month the said visitation was at St Bride's and after that in divers other parish churches; and so all images pulled down through all England at that time, and all churches new whitelimed with the commandments written on the walls. And at that time was the bishop of London put into the Fleet, and was there more than eight days; and after him was the bishop of Winchester put there also.

At this same time was pulled up all the tombs, great stones, all the altars, with the stalls and walls of the

quire, and altars in the church that was sometime the Grey friars and sold.

(1) Of what policy was this a part ? (2) Who was the chief investigator ? (3) Who are the bishops referred to and why are they

punished ?

4. When my father departed from Venice many years since to dwell in England, to follow the trade of marchandises, hee tooke mee with him to the citie of London, while I was very yong, yet hauing neverthelesse some knowledge of letters of humanitie, and of the Sphere. And when my father died in that time when newes were brought that Don Christopher Colonus Genuese had discovered the coasts of India, whereof was great talke in all the Court of King Henry the 7, who then raigned, insomuch that all men with great admiration affirmed it to be a thing more diuine than humane, to sail by the West into the East where spices growe, by a way that was neuer knowen before, by this fame and report there increased in my heart a great flame of desire to attempt some notable thing. And vnderstanding by reason of the Sphere, that if I should saile by way of the North-west, I should by a shorter tract come into India, I thereupon caused the king to be aduertised of my deuise, who immediately commanded two Caruels to bee furnished with all things appertayning to the voyage, which was as farre as I remember in the yeere 1496 in the beginning of Sommer. I began therefore to saile toward the North-west, not thinking to find any other land than that of Cathay, and from thence

to turne toward India, but after certaine dayes I found that the land ranne towards the North, which was to mee a great displeasure. Neuerthelesse, sayling along by the coast to see if I could finde any gulfe that turned, I found the land still continent to the 56 degree vnder the Pole. And seeing that there the coast turned toward the East, despairing to finde the passage, I turned backe againe, and sailed downe by the coast of that land toward the Equinoctiall (euer with intent to find the said passage to India) and came to that part of this firme lande which is nowe called Florida, where my victuals failing, I departed from thence and returned into England, where I found great tumults among the people, and preparations for warres by reason whereof there was no more consideration had to this voyage.

(1) Say what you can of the writer of this passage. (2) Why were there “tumults among the people and

preparations for warres"? (3) Say as accurately as possible the coast along which

the writer sailed. (4) Comment on the phrases in italics.

5. I do consider that the said lands were taken away from the Churches aforesaid in time of schism, and that by unlawful means, such as are contrary both to the law of God and of the Church: for which cause my conscience doth not suffer me to detain them. And therefore I here expressly refuse, either to claim or retain those lands for mine: but with all my heart, freely and willingly, without all faction or condition, here and before God, I do surrender and relinquish the

said lands and possessions, or inheritances whatever; and renounce the same with this mind and purpose, that order and disposition thereof may be taken, as shall seem best liking to the pope, or his legate, to the honour of God, and the wealth of this our realm.

(1) Who is here giving up claims?
(2) What lands are being surrendered ?
(3) When was this done and with what results ?

Give your reasons for your answers.

6. We do expressly renounce all exemption whereby, mediately or immediately, we are or have been subject to the bishop of Rome, highest prelate (as they call him), or to him by what name soever he is called, or to his church of Rome, and all his grants, privileges, gifts, whatsoever conferred; and we profess ourselves to be subjects and vassals to your majesty alone, and we do thereby submit ourselves and promise only to be subject thereunto. Neither will we by ourselves, or by any other interposed person or persons, pay or cause to be paid, to the said bishop of Rome, or to his messengers, orators, collectors or legates any procuration, pension, portion, taxes, or any other sum of moneys, by what name soever it is called.

Who took this oath, when, and why? Give reasons for your answers.

What were the chief taxes usually paid to Rome at this time?

7. Two things do great hurt in this place, of the which I do now mean to speak; the one is a rumour

which runneth about the House, and this it is. "Take heed what you do, the Queen liketh not such a matter; whosoever preferreth it, she will be offended with him; on the contrary, her Majesty liketh such a matter; whosoever speaketh against it, she will be much offended with him." The other; sometimes a message is brought into the house, either commanding or inhibiting, very injurious to the freedom of speech and consultation. (1) What circumstances do you think gave rise to the

foregoing remarks ? (2) Suggest a likely author with dates (approx.). (3) How far was the opinion expressed that of the time? (4) What do you gather from the extract was the position

of the Crown ?

8. But that which moved him most was, that being a king that loved wealth and treasure, he could not endure to have trade sick, nor any obstruction to continue in the gate-vein, which disperseth that blood. And yet he kept state so far, as first to be sought unto. Wherein the merchant-adventurers likewise, being a strong company at that time, and well under-set with rich men, and good order, did hold out bravely; taking off the commodities of the kingdom, though they lay dead upon their hands for want of vent. At the last, commissioners met at London to treat.

These concluded a perfect treaty, both of amity and intercourse, between the king and the archduke, containing articles both of state, commerce and free fishing. In this treaty there was an express article against the reception of the rebels of either prince by other. And it was expressly

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