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was the ruin of his reign, and of all his affairs, was his giving himself up to a mad range of pleasures from the very first, and at a time that required his utmost application.
What in this description of Charles II would apply equally well to his father, grandfather, brother?
21. You see, my comrades, that the power of the Most High is opposed to our efforts. You see that the valour and merits of Henry, most victorious of kings, are so joined with the favour of heaven that in our struggle against him all our might has been shattered and fails without effect. You see, moreover, our utter destitution and want, aye and to tell the plain truth, our absolute beggary. For, to confess the truth to you now,
. although I have put off paying you till to-day, really I have nothing left, no, not a penny; and I do not know where I am to get any money from, or what is to become
I am so assailed by fear and a bad conscience that I will indeed reveal in the clear light of truth my counsel, which hitherto I have concealed from you, Of a truth I am not the son of Edward as I told
I was, nor am I worthy of such high lineage. And all the signs and seasons I cleverly told of, I remembered from the time when I was a little fellow in the service of Edward the Jew and of the little son of King Edward in England; for my master was high in favour of King Edward and his children. Wherefore now spare me, I entreat you, and save your lives as best you can. for my part, I do not know whither to turn or to flee.
For, But in any case I have made up my mind to surrender to the King's grace rather than die.
(1) Whose speech is this and to whom was it spoken?
Show in each case on what you base your answers.
22. And be it enacted, That such ornaments of the church and of the ministers thereof shall be retained and be in use, as was in the Church of England by authority of parliament in the second year of the reign of King Edward VI until other order shall be therein taken by the authority of the Queen's Majesty with the advice of her commissioners appointed and authorized under the Great Seal of England
for ecclesiastical causes. (1) When and why was it necessary to enact the above ?
Give the time as accurately as possible with your
23. Cromwell, our chief of men who, through a cloud
Not of war only, but detractions rude,
To peace and truth thy glorious way hast plough'd, And on the neck of crowned fortune proud
Hast rear'd God's trophies, and his work pursued, While Darwen stream, with blood of Scots imbrued,
And Dunbar field, resounds thy praises loud, And Worcester's laureate wreath: Yet much remains
To conquer still; peace hath her victories
No less renown'd than war, new foes arise
Help us to save free conscience from the paw
24. Let judges also remember that, Solomon's throne was supported by lions on both sides; let them be lions, but yet lions under the throne, being circumspect, that they do not check or oppose any points of sovereignty.
Give illustrations of the carrying out of this principle. Suggest writers of the passage with your reasons for your choice.
25. Having the concurrence of eleven out of twelve, we think we may very well declare the opinion of the Court to be that the King may dispense in this case; and the judges go upon these grounds:
(1) That the Kings of England are sovereign princes; (2) That the laws of England are the King's laws; (3) That therefore 'tis an inseparable prerogative in the Kings of England to dispense with penal laws in particular cases and upon particular necessary reasons; (4) That of those reasons and those necessities the King himself is sole judge; and then, which is consequent upon all, (5) That this is not a trust invested in or granted to the King by the people, but the ancient remains of the sovereign power and prerogative of the Kings of England, which never yet was taken from them, nor can be.
(1) With how many of these grounds would (a) a Roman
Catholic, (6) a Puritan minister turned out by the 1662 Act, (c) a M.P. belonging to the court or
country party agree? (2) Should we consider the arguments true to-day? (3) Give instances of the exercising of the prerogative in
the third heading.
26. A. I looked upon my lord of Strafford as a gentleman whose great abilities might make a prince rather afraid than ashamed to employ him in the greatest affairs of state.
For those were prone to create in him great confidence of undertakings, and this was like enough to betray him to great errors and many enemies; whereof he could not but contract good store, while moving in so high a sphere and with so vigorous a lustre, he must needs, as the sun, raise many envious exhalations, which condensed by a popular odium, were capable to cast a cloud upon the brightest merit and integrity.
Though I cannot in my judgment approve all he did, driven it may be, by the necessities of times and the temper of that people, more than led by his own disposition to any height and rigour of actions; yet I could never be convinced of any such criminousness in him as willing to expose his life to the stroke of justice, and malice of his enemies.
Nor were the crimes objected against him so clear, as after a long and fair hearing to give convincing satisfaction to the major part of both houses, especially that of the lords, of whom scarce a third part were present when the bill passed that house. And for the house of commons, many, it is thought, were rather terrified to concur with the condemning party than satisfied that of right they ought to do so.
B. [The Earl of Strafford was] a man whom all men looked upon as one of the boldest and most impetuous instruments that the king had to advance any violent or illegal design. He had ruled Ireland, and some parts of England in an arbitrary manner, had endeavoured to subvert fundamental laws, to subvert parliaments, and to incense the king against them; he had also endeavoured to make hostility between England and Scotland: he had counselled the king to call over that Irish army of papists, which he had cunningly raised, to reduce England, as appeared by good testimony then present at the consultation. For which, and many other crimes alleged and proved against him in twentyeight articles, he was condemned of high treason by the parliament. The commons by far the greater number cast him; the lords, after they had been satisfied in a full discourse by the King's solicitor, and the opinions of many judges delivered in their house, agreed likewise to the sentence of treason. The people universally cried out for justice. (1) What inferences can you draw from these two extracts
as to the opinions of the writers ? (2) Briefly contrast the two pieces and say which, if either,
in your opinion gives his true character.