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HE aim of this scheme has been to present a type

of exercise based on original sources which does not necessarily demand the essay form of answer and which thereby reduces the amount of correction, without sacrificing the worth of the problem. It will be seen that in many cases the questions can be answered either in a few sentences or in a tabular form. If preferred, however, most of the exercises can be arranged to give a connected answer. Chronological order has not been followed, in order to increase the efficacy of the scheme.

The compiler wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the source books of Arber, Adams and Morse Stephens, Colby, Gardiner, Grant-Robertson, Kendal, Prothero, and Messrs J. and C. Black's series.

W. J. R. G.

July 1913



1. I am a little afraid of writing to you, my dear Robert; not because I fear that your affection for me has been at all impaired by this great separation in time and space, but because you are now in that part of the world where the very walls are more learned and scholarly than the men are with us; so that what we are thinking here, fine, exquisite, tasteful, charming, cannot help seeming there, crude, poor and insipid. So you must understand that England expects to find you not only an expert jurist but also equally loquacious in Latin and Greek. But, you ask, how do you like our England? If you trust me at all, Robert, I assure you that I have never liked anything so much in all my life, I have found here a climate as pleasant as it is healthy; no end of kindness; and so much real learning, not commonplace and paltry, but profound accurate ancient Latin and Greek, that, save for the satisfaction of seeing it, I do not now so much care for Italy.

Say what you can of the writer of this letter and where he was situated at the time. Suggest the names of people to whom he may have been writing and where they were living. Date the letter as accurately as possible.

2. While other nations are always entering into leagues, and breaking and renewing them, the Utopians never enter a league with any nation. For what is the use of a league? they say. As though there were no natural tie between man and man! and as though anyone who despised this natural tie would, forsooth, regard mere words! They hold this opinion all the more strongly, because in that quarter of the world the leagues and treaties of princes are not observed as faithfully as they should be. For in Europe, and especially in those parts of it where the Christian faith and religion are professed, the sanctity of leagues is sacred and inviolate; partly owing to the justice and goodness of princes, and partly from their fear and reverence of the authority of the popes, who, as they themselves never enter obligations, which they do not religiously perform (!), command other princes under all circumstances to abide by their promises, and punish delinquents by pastoral censure and discipline. For indeed, with good reason, it would be thought a most scandalous thing for those whose peculiar designation is “the faithful,” to be wanting in the faithful observance of treaties. But in those distant regions no faith is to be placed in leagues, even though confirmed by the most solemn ceremonies. Some flaw is easily found in their wording which is intentionally made ambiguous so as to leave a loophole through which the parties may break both their leagues and their faith. Which craft,-yes, fraud and deceitif it were perpetrated with respect to a contract between private parties, they would indignantly denounce as sacrilege and deserving the gallows, whilst those who suggest these very things to princes, glory in being the

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