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17. She is of low stature, with a red and white complexion, and very thin; her eyes are white and large, and her hair reddish; her face is round, with a nose rather low and wide; and were not her age on the decline, she might be called handsome rather than the contrary. She is not of a strong constitution, and of late she suffers from headache and serious affection of the heart. She is of very spare diet, and never eats till I or 2 p.m. although she rises at daybreak, when, after her prayers and hearing mass in private, she transacts business incessantly until after midnight, when she retires to rest; for she chooses to give audience not only to all the members of her Privy Council, and to hear from them every detail of public business, but also to all other persons who ask it of her. Her Majesty's countenance indicates great benignity and clemency, which are not belied by her conduct, for although she has had many enemies, and though so many of them were by law condemned to death, yet had the executions depended solely on her Majesty's will, not one of them perhaps would have been enforced; but deferring to her council in everything, she in this matter likewise complied with the wishes of others rather than with her own. She is endowed with excellent ability and more than moderately read in Latin literature, especially with regard to Holy Writ; and besides her native tongue she speaks Latin, French and Spanish and understands Italian perfectly, but does not speak it. She is also very generous, but not to the extent of letting it appear that she rests her chief claim to commendation on this quality.

She is so confirmed in the Catholic religion that although the King her brother and his council prohibited her from having the mass celebrated according to the Roman Catholic ritual, she nevertheless had it performed in secret nor did ever chose by any act to assent to any other form of religion. Her Majesty takes pleasure in playing on the lute and spinet. But she seems to delight above all in arraying herself elegantly and magnificently and she wears much embroidery and gowns and mantles of cloth of gold and cloth of silver of great value, and changes every day. She also makes great use of jewels. Either A (1) Tabulate a comparison and contrast between the

character of Queen Mary as given in this extract

with that of her sister Elizabeth. (2) What can you infer about the writer of this extract ?

Give your reasons for your inferences. (3) Date the extract as accurately as possible. (4) Do you disagree with any statements? If so which

and why?

or B

Write a general criticism of the above extract

introducing points concerning A 1-4.

18. A. Seeing that the common law for maintenance of the King's ordinary charge, hath given him such a complete revenue out of the interests and property of the subject, and provided also for sudden occasions, in so doing it hath secluded and secured the rest of the subject's estate from the King's power and pleasure; and consequently that the King hath not power upon any occasion at his pleasure to charge the estate of his subjects by impositions, tallages or taxes—for I hold them all in one degree-or any other burden whatsoever, without the subject's free and voluntary assent and that in parliament.

B. It is said that an imposition may not be put upon a subject without parliament. That the King may impose upon a subject, I omit, for it is not here the question if the King may impose upon the subject or his goods. But the impost here is not upon a subject, but here it is upon a merchant who imports goods within the land, charged before the King; and at the time when the impost was imposed upon them, they were the goods of the Venetians and not the goods of a subject nor within the land; and so all the arguments for the subject fail.

Compare and contrast these two quotations. Suggest writers, give dates, say how far the opinions expressed were held in England and by whom. What effects had either of the statements ?

19. May it please your most excellent Majesty, We, your humble, loving and faithful subjects, the Lords and Commons in this present parliament assembled, having of long time, to our intolerable grief, seen by how manifold, most dangerous and execrable practices, Mary, Queen of Scots, hath compassed the destruction of your Majesty's sacred and most royal person, and thereby not only to bereave us of the sincere and true religion of Almighty God, bringing us and this noble crown back again into the thraldom of the Romish tyranny, but also utterly to ruinate and overthrow the happy state and commonweal of this realm: and seeing also what insolent boldness is grown in the heart of the same Queen, through your Majesty's former exceeding favours towards her; and thereupon weighing, with heavy and sorrowful hearts, in what continual peril of suchlike desperate conspiracies and practices your Majesty's most royal and sacred person and life is and shall be still, without any possible means to prevent it, so long as the said Scottish Queen shall be suffered to continue, and shall not receive that due punishment, which by justice and the laws of this your realm, she hath so often deserved; therefore We do most humbly beseech your most excellent Majesty that, as well in respect of the continuance of the true religion now professed amongst us and of the safety of your most royal person and estate, as in regard of the preservation and defence of us your most loving, dutiful and faithful subjects and the whole commonweal of this realm, it may please your Highness to take speedy order, that declaration of the same sentence and judgment be made and published by proclamation, and that thereupon direction be given for further proceedings against the said Scottish Queen: because upon advised and great consultation, we cannot find that there is any possible means to provide for your Majesty's safety, but by the just and speedy execution of the said Queen.

Summarize the arguments of parliament for the death of Mary Queen of Scots.

How far were these arguments founded on fact?

20. The king was then thirty years of age, and past, one would think, the levities of youth and extravagances of pleasure. He had a good understanding, was

well acquainted with the state of affairs both at home and abroad, and had an easy affability and softness of temper that charmed all who came near him, until they were made sensible how little his good looks and kind words and fair promises, wherein he was liberal to excess, were to be depended on. His apprehension was quick, and his imagination and memory good, which enabled him to tell stories with a good grace; but these being sometimes too long, and sometimes too often repeated, made him become an everlasting talker. His compass of knowledge was very considerable; for he understood physic and chemistry, mechanics and navigation well, and the architecture of a ship a little more exactly than what became a prince. His sense of religion was so very small that he did not so much as affect the hypocrite; but at prayers and sacraments let everyone, by his negligent behaviour, see how little he thought himself concerned in these matters. His Popery he concealed to the last, but it would sometimes break out in the commendation of an infallible guide in matters of religion, and an implicit faith and submission in the people. His political notions were chiefly taken from the French Government; for a king that might be controlled or have his ministers called to an account by Parliament was, in his opinion, but a creature of the people and a king by name. His private opinion of people was very odd. He thought no man sincere, nor woman honest, out of principle; but that whenever they proved so, humour or vanity was at the bottom of it. No one, he fancied, served him out of love, and therefore he endeavoured to be quits with the world by loving others as little as he thought they loved him. But what

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