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he is guilty of levying war against the said Parliament and people, and maintaining and continuing the same; for which in the said charge he stands accused, and by the general course of his government, counsels, and practices, before and since this Parliament began, this Court is fully satisfied in their judgments and consciences, that he has been and is guilty of the wicked design and endeavours in the said charge set forth. For all which treasons and crimes this Court doth adjudge that he, the said Charles Stuart, as a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy to the good people of this nation, shall be put to death by the severing of his head from his body.

Examine and tabulate the chief heads of the charges made against Charles I as set forth in this “Sentence of the High Court of Justice." Which of these heads do you consider to be substantiated ? Comment on the general tone of the document.

14. And spare your pleasure for A season,
And stody remedy by your awne Reason,
To sette your Realme in quyetnes,
That now ys in grete hevynes,
To se A Churle, a Bochers Curre,
To Rayne and Rule in soche honour.
Hyt ys to hye, with-owte mesure;
Hys pryde hathe wastyd myche of your Treasure.

O gracious Kyng! Reuerte your mynde
from that Churle borne by kynde,
and from that vyle bochers Blode;
for he shall nevyr do your grace good.

he Blyndeth your grace with sotell Reason,
And vnder-myndyth yow by hye treason;
And yf your grace wold pleas to here,
hys falsed and treason shall Apere.
(1) To whom does this refer? Give your evidence.
(2) What conclusions can you draw as to the attitude of

the writer and what may have caused him to take

up that attitude? (3) Comment on the last four lines of the second versé.

15. Charles R.

Charles, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith etc. To all our loving subjects, of what degree or quality soever, greeting.

If the general distraction and confusion which is spread over the whole kingdom doth not awaken all men to a desire and longing that those wounds which have so many years together been kept bleeding, may be bound up, all we can say will be to no purpose; however, after this long silence, we have thought it our duty to declare how much we desire to contribute thereunto; and that as we can never give over the hope, in good time, to obtain the possession of that right which God and nature hath made our due, so we do make it our daily suit to the Divine Providence, that He will, in compassion to us and our subjects, after so long misery and sufferings, remit and put us into a quiet and peaceable possession of that our right, with as little blood and damage to our people as is possible; nor do we desire

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more to enjoy what is ours, than that all our subjects may enjoy what by law is theirs, by a full and entire administration of justice throughout the land, and by extending our mercy where it is wanted and deserved.

And to the end that the fear of punishment may not engage any, conscious to themselves of what is past, to a perseverance in guilt for the future, by opposing the quiet and happiness of their country, in the restoration of King, Peers and people to their just, ancient and fundamental rights, we do, by these presents, declare, that we do grant a free and general pardon, which we are ready, upon demand, to pass under our Great Seal

England, to all our subjects, of what degree or quality soever, who, within forty days after the publishing hereof, shall lay hold upon this our grace and favour, and shall by any public act, declare their doing so, and that they return to the loyalty and obedience of good subjects; excepting only such persons as shall hereafter be excepted by Parliament, those only to be excepted. Let all our subjects, however faulty soever, rely upon the word of a King, solemnly given by this present declaration, that no crime whatsoever, committed against us or our royal father before the publication of this, shall ever rise in judgment, or be brought in question, against any of them, to the least endamagement of them, either in their lives, liberties, or estates, or (as far forth as lies in our power) so much as to the prejudice of their reputations, by any reproach or term of distinction from the rest of our best subjects; we desiring and ordaining that henceforth all notes of discord, separation and difference of parties be utterly abolished among all our subjects, whom we invite and conjure to a perfect union among themselves, under our protection, for the resettlement of our just rights and theirs in a free Parliament, by which, upon the word of a King, we will be advised.

And because the passion and uncharitableness of the times have produced several opinions in religion, by which men are engaged in parties and animosities against each other (which, when they shall hereafter unite in a freedom of conversation, will be composed or better understood), we do declare a liberty to tender consciences, and that no man shall be disquieted or called in question for differences of opinion in matter of religion, which do not disturb the peace of the kingdom; and that we shall be ready to consent to such an Act of Parliament, as, upon mature deliberation, shall be offered to us, for the full granting that indulgence.

And because, in the continued distractions of so many years, and so many and great revolutions, many grants and purchases of estates have been made to and by many officers, soldiers and others, who are now possessed of the same, and who may be liable to actions at law upon several titles, we are likewise willing that such differences, and all things relating to such grants, sales and purchases, shall be determined in Parliament, which can best provide for the just satisfaction of all men who are concerned.

And we do further declare, that we will be ready to consent to any Act or Acts of Parliament to the purposes aforesaid, and for the full satisfaction of all arrears due to the officers and soldiers of the army under the command of General Monk; and that they shall be received

into our service upon as good pay and conditions as they now enjoy.

[Declaration of Breda, April 14th, 1660.) Give (either in a tabulated or connected form) the principles laid down in this declaration noting which were fulfilled during the reign and how and also which were violated and in what


16. The king commending them [i.e. members of parliament] for their true and loving hearts, to the intent he might not aggravate the common people with paying of great taxes and sums of money-whom his mind was ever to keep in favour--would first exact money by a little and a little of the benevolent mind of the rich sort; and this kind of exaction was first excogitated by King Edward III. Therefore he consulted with his friends, to intent how to gather together a great sum of money, and published abroad that by their open gifts he would measure and search their benevolent hearts and loving minds towards him, so that he that gave most should be judged to be most loving friend, and he that gave little to be esteemed according to his gift. So by this means the king gathered innumerable sums of money, with some grudge of the people for the extremity shown by the commissioners in divers places. (1) Of whom was this written? Give your reasons.

What do you know concerning this method of raising

money? (3) Give other instances of the use of this same method.

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