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leathern thongs holding the tablets together had been thrice worn out; he said, “ Give me several years, and I will endeavor to master the Yi."
The Cova or Lineation of which an interpretation was asked for by “K. T." (Vol. II, p. 650) has been explained by William T. Harris (Vol. III, p. 14). That was attributed to Fo-hi, or Fû-hsî, and contained 8 trigrams which date back to 3322 B. C. These eight were: I. khien; 2. tui ; 3. li ; 4. Văn; 5. sun ; 6. khân ; 7. Lăn ; 8. khăn.
King Wăn changed the arrangement of Fo hi’s trigrams, and made them represent certain relations among themselves, as if they composed one family of parents and children thus : li, second daughter.
5. khân, second son. sun, oldest daughter.
6. khien, father. 3. kẵn, oldest son.
7. tui, youngest daughter. 4. khăn, youngest son.
8. khwăn, mother. It is a mooted question who first multiplied the figures, universally ascribed to Fo-hi, to the 64 hexagrams of the Yi. No Chinese writer has explained why the framer stopped at 64 hexagrams, instead of going on to 128 figures of seven lines, 256 figures of eight lines, 512 figures of nine lines, and so on; the cumbersomeness of the changes, and the impossibility of dealing with the changes after the manner of king Wăn, can only be the reason. The origin of the Cova and its amplification is given as follows :
“ Heaven produced the spirit-like things (the tortoise and the divining plant), and the sages took advantage of them. (The operations of) heaven and earth are marked by so many changes and transformations, and the sages imitate them (by means of the Yi). Heaven hangs out its (brilliant) figures, from which are seen good fortune and bad, and the sages made their emblematic interpretations accordingly. Ho gave forth the scheme or map, and the Lo gave forth the writing, of (both of) which the sages took advantage.”
The Ho is the Yellow River which gave forth the map. This map, according to tradition, contained the outline which served as a model to Fo-hi to make his eight trigram. Besides the above passage from the “Yí King" Confucius believed in, or spoke of, this map. The Chinese books say " the map was borne by a horse," and preserved in China. The modern story is that a dragon-horse issued from the Hoang Ho (Yellow River) bearing on its back the arrangement of marks which gave Fo-hi the idea. The map has perished, but its form was restored A. D. 1101-1125. The most approved for m is this:
X X X X X X X X
X X X X
X X X X X
xxxxxx The delineations of the scheme are quite nearly divided, 25 circles to 30 crosses, a total of 55. The circles are 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 ; while the crosses are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10. These represent Yin and Yang, the dark and the bright, moon-like and the sun-like ; the moon is called the Great Obscurity (Thai Yin); and the sun the Great Brightness (Thai Yang). Fo-hi in beginning, and king Wăn in extending the trigrams, found it more convenient to use lines, the whole line for the circle, and the divided line
for the cross.
The ist, 3d, and 5th lines in a hexagram, if they are "correct," as it is termed, should be whole lines ; the 2d, 4th, and 6th should be divided lines.
Yang lines are strong or hard, and Yin lines are weak or soft. The former indicate vigor and authority, and the latter feebleness and submission.
The accepted representation of the above delineation is as follows:
Substituting numbers for the number of marks, we have the magic square :
4 9 2
8 1 6 There are, however, differences of interpretation of these schemes as there are doubts as to the original “ River Map.
Our phrase vestiges of creation illustrates the ever changing phenomena of growth and decay, and might be used as the best expression of "the traces of making and transformations" of the hexagrams. The whole subject is elaborately discussed by Mr. Legge in his translation of the “ Yi King”: introduction 55 pages, the “ Yí King" 155 pages, appendixes 238 pages ; total 448 pages.
Here follow the hexagrams and interpretations ; this articles also answers "Mystic" (Vol. VI, p. 316).
The Sixty - Four Hexagrams.
Khien (represents) what is great and originating, penetrating, advantageous, firm, and correct.
2: Khăn (represents) what is great and originating, penetrating, advantageous, correct, and having the firmness of a mare. When the superior man (here intended) has to make any movement, if he take the initiative, he will go astray ; if he follow, he will find his (proper) lord. The advantageousness will be seen in his getting friends in the south-west, and losing friends in the north-east. If he rest in correct. ness and firmness, there will be good fortune.
3. Kun (indicates that in the case in which it presupposes) there will be great progress and success, and the advantage will come from being correct and firm, (But) any movement in advance should not be (lightly) undetraken. There will be advantage in appointing feudal princes.
4. Măng (indicates that in the case in which it presupposes) there will be progress and success. I do not (go and) seek the youthful and inexperienced, but he comes and seeks me. When he shows (the sincerity that marks) the first recourse to divination, I instruct him. If he apply a second and third time, that is troublesome; and I do not instruct the troublesome. There will be advantage in being firm and correct.
5. Hsū intimates that, with the sincerity which is declared in it, there will be brilliant success. With firmness there will be good fortune ; and it will be advantageous to cross the great stream.
6. Sung intimates how, though there is sincerity in one's contention, he will yet meet with opposition and obstruction ; but if he cherish an apprehensive caution, there will be good fortune, while, if he must prosecute the contention to the (bitter) end, there will be evil. It will be advantageous to see the great man'; it will not be advantageous to cross the great stream.
7. Sze indicates how, in the case in which it supposes, with firmness and correctness, and (a leader of) age and experience, there will. be good fortune and no error.
8. Pi indicates that (under the conditions which it supposes) there is good fortune. But let (the principal party intended in it) reëxamine himself, (as if) by divination, whether his virtue be great, unintermitting, and firm. If it be so, there will be no error. Those who have not rest will then come to him; and with those who are (too) late in coming it will be ill.
9. Hsiao Hhù indicates that (under its conditions) there will be progress and success. (We see) dense clouds, but no rain coming from our borders in the west.
10. (Li suggests the idea of) one's treading on the tail of a tiger, which does not bite him. There will be progress and success.