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FORMULATION OF THE DOCTRINES OF GAUTAMA THE BUDDHA. (Vol. VI, p. 300.) The doctrines of Gautama, like those of Confucius and Jesus, were epitomized into a few words, namely :

1. Sabbbapápassa akaranam ; 2. Kusalassa upasampadá ; 3. Sa chitta pariyo dapanam. Etam Buddhánu saranam.

1. To cease from sin ; 2. To get virtue; 3. To cleanse one's own heart. This is the religion of the Buddhas.

These celebrated words have a meaning that should not be overlooked by the student of Buddhistic philosophy. The first line embodies the whole spirit of the Vinaya ; the second line embodies that of the Sutta ; the third embodies that of the Abidhamma. Thus in three lines, collectively comprising only eight Pali words, are condensed the entire essence of the Buddhistic Scriptures. According to Mr. Rhys-Davids, there are about 1,751,800 words in the whole text of the three Pitakas. A Magic Square---Magic, Nasik, and 100- Ply.

-0--0Particulars of the magic square on the opposite page, 20 numbers in each row, giving 400 numbers in all.

I. It is “ magic,” the rows, columns, and diagonals summing alike, namely, 4,010.

2. It is "nasik ;" any 20 consecutive numbers, in standing direction, taken at random, likewise sum 4,010. (In this point the square is to be imagined repeated indefinitely on all sides, as a pattern of wall paper ; but to avoid this trouble, the fact may be tested by dividing the square by an imaginary line anywhere in a horizontal or perpendicular direction, and the sum of the two short parallel diagonals will equal 4,010. Thus, divide, say, by line A B, then the diagonal A C added to its parallel short diagonal B D, will sum 4,010 ; or, the short diagonal D A added to its parallel C B will also sum 4,010.)

3. It is " 100-ply;" that is, any square group containing 100 numbers, taken at random, sums alike, namely, 20,050.

(This may be proved, without going thrugh the task of summing the groups, by noticing that any 10 consecutive numbers in any row, or column, taken at random, equals its corresponding parallel, 10 places distant. Thus, from 9 to 146 inclusive, in third column, equals the sum of the 10 parallel numbers from 259 to 396 inclusive, in thirteenth column; and so on.)

T. S. BARRETT, London, Eng.

A

14 | 22 |

C

11 7| 13 | 19 | 25 | 176 | 182 | 188 | 194 | 200 | 251 | 257 | 263 269 | 275 | 326 | 332 | 338 | 344 | 350 | 20 | 21 | 2 | 8 | 189 | 195 | 196 | 177 | 183 | 264 | 270 | 271 | 252 | 258 | 339 | 345 | 346 | 327 | 333

31 9| 15 | 16 | 197 | 178 | 184 | 190 | 191 | 272 | 253 | 259 | 265 | 266 | 347 | 328 | 334 | 340 | 341
10 | 11 | 17 | 23 | 4 | 185 | 186 | 192 | 198 | 179 | 260 | 261 267 | 273 | 254 | 335 | 336 | 342 | 348 | 329
18 | 24 | 5|| 6 | 12 | 193 | 199 | 180 | 181 | 187 | 268 | 274 | 255 | 256 | 262 | 343 | 349 | 330i 331 | 337
276 | 282 | 288 | 294 | 300 | 301 | 307 | 313 | 519 | 325 | 26 | 32 | 38 | 44 | 50 | 151 | 157 | 163 | 169 | 175
289 | 295 | 296 | 277 | 283 | 314 | 320 | 321 | 302 | 308 | 39 | 45 | 46 | 27 | 33 | 164 / 170 | 171 | 152 | 158
297 | 278 | 284 | 290 | 291 | 322 | 303 | 309 | 315 | 310 | 47 | 28 | 34 | 40 | 41 | 172 | 153 | 159 | 165 | 166
285 | 256 | 292 | 298 | 279 | 310 311 | 317 | 323 / 304 | 35 | 36 | 42 | 48 | 29 | 160 | 161 | 167 | 173 | 154
293 | 299 | 280 | 281 | 287 | 318 | 324 | 305 | 306 | 312 | 43 | 49 | 30 | 31 | 37 | 168 | 174 | 155 | 156 | 162
126 | 132 | 138 | 144 | 150 | 51 | 57 | 63 | 69 | 75 | 376 | 382 | 388 | 394 | 400 201 | 207 | 213 | 219 | 225
139 | 145 | 146 | 127 | 133 | 64 | 70 | 71 | 52 | 58 | 389 | 395 | 396 | 377 | 383 | 214 | 220 | 221 | 202 | 208
147 | 128 | 134 | 140 | 141 | 72 | 53 | 59 | 65 | 66 | 397 | 378 | 384 | 390 391 | 222 | 203 | 209 215 216
135 | 136 | 142 | 148 | 129 | 60 | 61 | 67 | 73 | 54 | 385 | 386 | 392 | 398 | 379 210 211 217 | 223 204
143 | 149 | 130 | 131 | 137 | 68 | 74 | 55 | 56 | 62 | 393 | 399 | 380 381 | 387 | 218 | 224 | 205 206 | 212
351 | 357 | 363 | 369 | 375 | 226 | 232 | 238 | 244 | 250 | 101 | 107 | 113 | 119 | 125 | 76 | 82 | 88 | 94 | 100
364 | 370 | 371 | 352 | 358 | 239 | 245 | 246 | 227 | 232 | 114 | 120 | 121 | 102 | 108 | 89

89 |

1 95 | 96 | 77 | 83 372 | 353 | 359 | 365 | 366 | 247 | 228 | 234 | 240 241 | 122 | 103 | 109 | 115 | 116 | 97 | 78 | 84 | 90 | 91 360 | 361 | 367 | 373 | 354 | 235 | 236 | 242 | 248 | 229 | 110 | 111 | 117 | 123 | 104 | 85 | 86 | 92 | 98 | 79 368 | 374 | 355 | 356 | 362 | 243 | 249 | 230 231 | 237 | 118 | 124 | 105 | 106 | 112 | 93 | 99 | 80 | 81 | 87

B

1.

PYTHAGORAS'S DOCTRINE OF NUMBERS. What is the Pythagorean doctrine of numbers which has been several times alluded to in your pages?

ANDREW. Mullach justly observes that the exposition of the significance and potency of numbers in the Pythagorean theory, would require an ample volume. He therefore notices them very briefly. The like course must be adopted here, and a summary, abridged from those given by S. Baring-Gould, must suffice.

The Monad, or unit, is the beginning and end of all. It is the symbol of existence, identity, equality, conversation and harmony.

The Dyad, or two, is the origin of contrasts, the symbol of diversity, division, change, and disorder.

3. The Triad, or three, is the first of unequals. It represents God and the soul of man.

4. The Tetrad, or four, is the most perfect of numbers ; the root, or origin, of all things ; when the soul derives its eternal nature; it furnished the Pythagorean oath.

5. The Pentad, or five, is everything, supplying the principle of everything, and repelling evil spirits.

6. The Hexad, or six, is the number of good fortune.

7. The Heptad, or seven, is a sacred number, generating good and evil.

8. The Oclad, or eight, the first cube, is a perfect number.
9. The Ennead, or nine, being the square of three, is sacred.

The Decad, or ten, the sum of the first four numbers, contains all numeric relations. All science proceeds from it and returns to it.

THE OATH OF PYTHAGORAS. (Vol. VI, p. 300.) The following is the formas given in Oliver's " Pythagorean Triangle," p. 103 :

“ By that pure, Holy, Four-Lettered Name on high,

Nature's eternal fountain and supply,
The parent of all souls that living be,

By Him, with faithful oath, I swear to thee. MASCOT. (Vol V, p. 96.) The New York Sun (Dec. 23, 1888). says that the word Mascot comes from the French gambler's slang. An“ escot” was something that brought luck to the owner ; in time, it became mascot, from mon escot, mo'escot, m'ascot. Audran, in his opera,

“The Mascot," popularized the word.,

10.

THE TOUR OF THE CHESS KNIGHT. I desire to present one tour which interested me several years ago.

No doubt the publishers will present Volume I, Nos. 1 to 20, for the first correct solution sent to them. We will.]

Zeno.

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THE TUNE The Old Cow DIED ON. How many have used this expression without any definite idea of its meaning or origin. It seems to have come to us from over the water. In Scotland and the north of Ireland this saying is very common in the mouths of the peasantry. It arose out of an old song which ran like this

“ There was an old man and he had an old cow,

And he had nothing to give her ;
So he took out his fiddle and played her a tune :

Consider, good cow, consider ;
This is no time of year for the grass to grow ;

Consider, good cow, coneider." The old cow died of hunger ; and when any grotesque and melancholy song or tune is uttered, the north country people there say, that is “ the tune the old cow died on."

O. H. L.

QUESTIONS.

2.

T.

1. What was King Solomon's code of six principles which guided him in the administration of justice in Israel ?

A. A. D. Of what fraternity is the lock-and-key the insignia ? A. B. G. 3. Why is the witch-hazel and witch-grass so called ?

X. What spoken language is the most expressive to preserve the true intent and meaning of the Hebrew language when translated into such spoken language ?

JACOB H. MORTON. Did the inhabitants of Barbary in the north of Africa originally give the name babrarians to the northern hordes?

Logos. 6. Who is the first “ seventh son” mentioned in the Bible. T. 7. What is said to be the first book written, now in existence;

and also the first book written, not now extant?

8. What is said to be "Symmes's Hole" in the earth, and what book did he publish on the theory.

PHILOMATH. 9. What systems have been proposed to hold correspondence between the inhabitants of the earth and the moon (if any), and who first proposed such correspondence?

CYNTHIA, 10. Who were the 24 pseudo-christs (false-messiahs) who are said to have flourished in the Christian era ?

G. S. CLARK. 11. What is the name of the plant on the leaves of which are the close resemblance of some of the Greek alphabet, and what is the legend in reference to the same?

Enoch. 12. What were the words to which Homer alludes, Iliad Book XII, line 112, " Pronounced those solemn words that bind a god," spoken by Jupiter?

ALPHA. 13. What is Koreshan science mentioned in previous numbers of your magazine?

E. L. B. 14. Does Homer, in the lliad or Odyssey, mention “the wooden horse” which Virgil so graphically describes in his Æneid Book 11? If not, how is the omission accounted for?

ADELPHUS. 15. What islands are known as “the Devil's Land”? W. 16. What was the famous wheel question published in the Scientific American some twenty years ago ?

JONATHAN 17. What were the names of Greek months, and how did they correspond with our calendar?

ANDREW. 18. What have been the leading annual almanacs published in New England during the present century?

Iowa. 19. In what book can the interpretations of the Cova, or Lineations, of Fohi be found ? Can you publish them ? Mystic.

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