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49. Tobacco tongs-engine. 75. Discourse woven into tape or 50. Pocker ladder.
ribbon. 51. Rule of gradation.
76. To write in the dark. 52. Mystical jangling of bells. 77. Flying man. 53. Hollowing of water-screw. 78. Continually going watch. 54. Transparent water-screw. 79. Total locking of cabinet boxes. 55. Double water-screw.
80. Light pistol barrels. 56. An advantageous change of 81. Combe-conveyance for letters. centers.
82. Knife, spoon, or fork convey57. Constant water-flowing and ebbing motion.
83. Rasping mill. 58. An often-discharged pistol. 84. An arithmetical instrument. 59. An especial way for carabines. 85. An untoothsome pear. 60. Flask charger.
86. An imprisoning chair. 61. Way for musquets.
87. Candle mould. 62. Way for a harquebuss.
88. Brazen head or a speaking 63. For sakers and minyons.
figure. 64. For the biggist cannon. 89. Primeo gloves. 65. For a whole side of ship mus- go. Dicing-box. quets.
91. An artificial ring-horse. 66. For guarding several avenues 92. Gravel engine. to a town.
93. Ship-raising enging. 67. For musquetoons on horse- 94. Pocket engine to open any back.
door. 68. Fire water-works.
95. Double cross-bow. 69. Triangle key.
96. Way for sea-banks. 70. Rose key.
97. Perspective instrument. 71. Square key, with a turning 98. Semi-omnipotent engine. screw.
99. Most admirable way to raise 72. An escutcheon for all locks.
weights. 73. Transmittable gallery. 100. Stupendous water-works. 74. Conceited door.
He declares these to be " in bonum publicum, et ad majoram Dei gloriam."
“ Besydes many omitted, and some of three sorts willingly not set downe, as not fitt to be divulged, least ill use may be made thereof; butt to show that such things are also within my knowledge, I will here in myne own cypher set down one of each, not to be concealed when duty and affection obligeth me.”
The Marquis describes each of these inventions ingeniously, and says of the gath especially :
" And therefore I call this A semi-omnipotent Engine, and do intend that a model thereof be buried with me.
“ EUREKA" ARCHIMEDES OR PYTHAGORAS. (Vol. VI, p. 300.) Anthon, in his “Classical Dictionary,” article on Archimedes, p. 179, says, in reference to this ancient mathematician :
“ His knowledge of the doctrines of specific gravities is proved by the well known story of his discovery of the mixture of silver with gold in King Hiero's crown, which fraud he detected by comparing the quantity of water displaced by equal weights of gold and silver. The thought occurred to him while in the bath, on observing that he displaced a bulk of water equal to his own body ; when, at once, perceiving a train of consequences, he ran naked out of the bath into the street, exclaiming Eureka! ("I have found it !"). This part of of the story, however, is regarded by some as a mere exaggeration."
Anthon says Archimedes was a native of Syracuse, in Sicily, and flourished about 250 B. C. Under what masters he studied, or how much of his extraordinary knowledge he acquired from his predecessors, is not known. That he travelled into Egypt appears certain ; but it is probable that, with his scientific acquaintance with that country he communicated more than he received.
The text-books for instruction in Ancient Craft Masonry contains nine classes of emblems in the Master mason's degree the sixth of which is the “ Forty-seventh Problem of Euclid.” We copy from the “ Trestle-Board,” by Charles W. Moore (Boston, 1861), p. 43, the section relating to this problem:
“ This was an invention of our ancient friend and brother, the Great Pythagoras, who, in his travels through Asia, Africa, and Europe, was initiated into several orders of priesthood, and is said to have been raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason. This wise philosopher enriched his mind abundantly in a general knowl. edge of things, more especially in Geometry, or Masonry. On this subject he drew out many problems and theorems ; and among the most distinguished he erected this, when in the joy of his heart, he exclaimed Eureka! signifying in the Grecian language, “I have found it !” and upon the discovery of which he is said to have sacrificed a hecatomb. It teaches Masons to be general lovers of the arts and sciences."
This record is substantiated, in regard to the invention of the theorem, and problem, by Anthon (article Pythagoras, p. 1157), but not in the exclamation of Eureka !
Pythagoras lived, according to the best chronologists, between the years 608 B C. and 466 B. C. ; Visconti agreed with Eusebius in fixing the date of his death at 496 B. C. This antedates the time
of Archimedes by 246 years. Pythagoras died at a very advanced age, it is said, and Archimedes was slain at the age of 75 years.
Now on what authority does either Charles Anthon or Charles W. Moore make the statement as to the person who exclaimed Eureka !
How a SPIDER SPINS A THREAD. (Vol. VI, p. 252.) This is a very interesting process, and like many other arts of the “lower orders ” of beings, displays intelligence that the word “instinct” will not cover.
The spiders that spin these webs have light slim bodies and long legs. They get on some elevated point and raise the body till the spot where the web is spun out is the highest part of the insect, and then the web is thrown to the breeze and floats away. After a little time the spider turns and pulls on the web with its claws, and if he finds by the pulling that the web has not attached itself to something, he spins out some more, and so continues until he finds the web is made fast at the other end. Then the spider crosses on it, and sometimes journeys from tree to tree in the same way, or the spider constructs a net to catch flies where he remains. I have watched this process many times, and also another, to explain which I will say that the web of the spider is in a fluid state until it comes to the air, and it comes from the body not all in one stream, but through hundreds of minute openings, and the insect can control the outlets so that the streams will twist into one, or remain separate and form a fiat mass so fine that it looks like mist. This is often seen where a spider catches a large insect in his net and winds it up to stop its struggles. Now when a spider wants to take a journey in the air, where there is no distant object to anchor to, he attaches his web to some projecting point, and lets himself down a few inches, and then works all the time spinning without twisting. He repeats this till the mass is sufficient to float in the air and bear up his own weight. he then mounts his raft and sails away.
O. H. L., Manchester, N. H. “ COMPLETING THE SQUARE." (Vol. VI, p. 243.) I have a copy of the 4th edition of Ryan's Algebra, dated 1843, on pp. 246-7 of which is given the rule for "completing the square.” I also have a copy of Ryan's Algegra, dated 1824, which appears to be the ist edition, on p. 395 of which is given the rule for "completing the square." Hence it seems that Robinson was not very familiar with the contents of Ryan's Algebra. ARTEMAS MARTIN, Washington, D. C.
DERIVATION OF THE WORD PYRAMID. (Vol. VI, p. 300.) Volney says, according to Joseph T. Goodsir (Ethnic Inspiration, p. 265) that the word " Pyramid" is from an Egyptian word Pooramis, signifying “a cave.”
Bunsen says (Egypt's Place, Vol. 1 p. 474 ; Vol. IV, p. 107) that it is from Pyr, "division," and Met, "ten." This is favored by C. Piazzi Smyth (Life and Works, Vol. 11, p. 121.)
John Taylor says (The Great Pyramid, Why was it Built, p. 191) that there is reason to suppose the name Pyramis may have had refer. ence to pyrós, "wheat," and that the pyramid coffer in the Great Pyramid was a "measure of capacity of wheat," and that the structure itself may have been called a "wheat measure.”
Hargraves Jennings says (Rosicrucians, 1870, p. 215) that the word is from Pyr, "fire" (division produced by fire), and Metron, " ten ” (measures or spaces numbered as ten). The whole word means, and the monument bearing this name means," the original Ten Measures or part of the Fiery Ecliptic or Solar Wheel, or the Ten Original Signs of the Zodiac. Therefore the pyramids are commemorative altars raised to the divinity Fire."
Sir Gardner Wilkinson says (Rawlinson's Herodotus) that the word is from Pyron, "a cake of pointed figure." Kenrick also agrees with this derivation.
Rev. G. Trevor says that the word is from perami, "lofty," and thought to be the same with the Hebrew Charaboth, which in Job III, 14, signifies a "sepulchre," though rendered in King James's version “desolate places."
Wilkins says (Dessertation on the Coptic Language) that pyramid is from pouro, " a kind," and misi,“ a race, or generation," in the Coptic language.
“ MANY A SLIP BETWIXT THE CUP AND THE LIP." Whence the ori. gin of the proverb ?
XENOS. We are told by Eustathius that there was an ancient king Ancæus of Samos, who paid particular attention to the cultivation of the vine. On one occasion he was told by a slave, whom he was pressing with hard labor in his vineyard, that he would never taste of its product. After the vintage had been gathered in and the wine made, Ancæus, in order to falsify the prediction, was about to raise a cup of liquor to his lips, deriding, at the same time, the pretended prophet (who, how
ever, merely told him, in reply, that there were many things between the cup and the lip), when tidings came that a bore had broken into the vineyard. Throwing down the cup with the untasted liquor, Ancæus rushed forth to meet the animal, and lost his life in the encounter. Hence arose the proverb,
Multa cadunt inter calicem supremaque labra. Many things fall between the edge of cup and the lips.” The story given here, we are aware is related differently by other writers, but the point in all is the same. QUOTATION FROM VIRGIL. (Vol. VI, p. 268.) This quotation,
“ Macte nova virtue puer; sic itur ad astra;
Diis genite, et geniture, Deos." is found in Virgil's Æneid, (Book ix, lines 641-642). It was addressed by Apollo to Ascanius, called Tülus (often "little lülus "), the son of Æneas and Creusa ; Æneas was son of Anchises and Venus ; (Cręüsa was daughter of Priam and Hecuba.) Hence Apollo's words:
“Go on spotless boy, in the paths of virtue; it is the way to the stars ; offspring of the gods thyself; so shalt thou become the father of gods."
"Go on, hopeful boy, improve in virtue early begun ; thus mortals to the stars ascend, descendant of the gods, and from whom gods are to descend.”—Davidson Translation, 1811.
“Go on, increase in early valor, o boy ! Such is the pathway to the stars, O descendant of the gods, and from whom gods are to descend.”—Theo. A. Buckley's Davidson's Translation Revised.
“ On with fresh courage, boy ! So mount the way
To be the sire."-John D. Long's Translation.
Descendant and progenitor of gods," -Christ. P. Cranch's Translation. "Speed on in new-born valor, child !
O son of Gods and sire of Gods."-William Morris's Translation.
PROBLEM. “A man has a field cnclosed by a circular fence, the posts being one rod apart, and the fence ten rails high. There are as many acres in the field as there are rails in the fence. rails in the fence?”
F. K. H.