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low, supposed to have been once a vour with the British ministry, who waiter at an inn in Kirkcudbright. knew that you favoured the cause of The leader of the party, who was not liberty. On that account, I ain glad the captain of the vessel, told, that that you were absent from your estate their intention was to seize Lord Sele when I landed there, as I bore no kirk, who is now in London.” personal enmity, but the contrary, to

It appears, accordingly, that Paul wards you. I afterwards had the Jones actually purchased the plate, happiness to redeem my fellow citizens and embraced the first opportunity, from Britain, by means far more gloafter peace, to transmit it to Lord rious than through the medium of Selkirk, accompanied by the following any single hostage. letter:

As I have endeavoured to serve the Paris, February 12, 1784. cause of liberty through every stage MY LORD,- I have just received a of the American revolution, and saletter from Mr Nesbitt, dated at L'o- crificed to it my private ease, a part rient the 4th instant, mentioning a of my fortune, and some of my blood, letter to him from your son, Lord I could have no selfish motive in perDaer, on the subject of the plate that mitting my people to demand and was taken from your house by some carry off your plate. My sole induceof my people, when I commanded the ment was to turn their attention, and Ranger, and has been for a long time stop their rage from breaking out, past in Mr Nesbitt's care. A short and retaliating on your house and eftime before I left France to return fects the too wanton burnings and des to America, Mr W. Alexander wrote solation that had been committed ame from Paris to L'Orient, that he gainst their relations and fellow citihad, at my request, seen and convers zens in America by the British ; of ed with your Lordship in England re- which, I assure you, you would have specting the plate. He said you had felt the severe consequence, had I not agreed that I should restore it, and fallen on an expedient to prevent it, that it might be forwarded to the care and hurried my people away before of your sister-in-law, the Countess of they had time for further reflection. Morton, in London. In consequence, As you were so obliging as to say to I now send orders to Mr Nesbitt to Mr Alexander, that iny people behavforward the plate immediately to hered with great decency at your house, care. When I received Mr Alexan- I ask the favour of you to announce der's letter, there was no cartel or that circumstance to the public. I other vessel at L'Orient that I could am, my Lord, wishing you always trust with a charge of so delicate å perfect freedom and happiness, your nature as your plate ; and I had great Lordship’s most obedient and most reason to expect I should have re- humble servant, turned to France within six months

(Signed) PAUL JONES. after I embarked for America. But To the Right Honourable circumstances in America prevented the Earl of Selkirk, in my returning to Europe during the Scotland. war, though I had constant expectation of it.

After his combat with the Drake, The long delay that has happened Paul Jones sailed round the north of to the restoration of your plate has Scotland, and, on the 5th Septemgiven me much concern, and I now ber, was seen off Lerwick. He did feel a proportionate pleasure in ful- no damage, however, except carrying filling what was my first 'intention. off a boat and four men from the My motive for landing at your estate island of Mousa. He then proceeded an in Scotland was to take you as an long the east coast of Scotland. In the hostage for the lives and liberty of a middle of September he sailed up the number of the citizens of America, Firth of Forth, and on the 17th was who had been taken in war on the seen nearly opposite to Leith, below ocean, and committed to British pri- the island of Inchkeith. A violent sons under an act of Parliament, as south-westwind, however, having

traitors, pirates, and felons." You arisen, drove his squadron so rapidly observed to Mr Alexander, that my down the Firth, as to be soon out of idea was a mistaken one, because you sight. He had taken and plundered were not (as I had supposed) in fa- a few prizes. He sailed next to the


Texel, into which he carried, as prizes, America has been the country of two British vessels of war, the Sera- my fond election from the age of thirpis, and the Countess of Scarborough, teen, when I first saw it. I had the which, after an obstinate engagement, honour to hoist, with my own hands, he had captured near Flamborough the flag of freedom the first time it Head. On this occasion, the British was displayed on the Delaware ; and minister made urgent demands that I have attended it with veneration . the prizes, as well as Paul Jones ever since, on the ocean. I see it rehimself, and his squadron, should be spected even here in spite of the pitidelivered up to his government. The ful Sir Joseph (Yorke;) and I ardently Dutch, however, on the 25th Octo- wish and hope very soon to exchange ber, came to this resolution: “ That a salute with the flag of this repubthey could not pretend to judge of the lic. Let but the two republics join legality or illegality of the actions of hands, and they will give peace to the those who had taken, on the open sea, world. vessels not belonging to themselves; Highly ambitious to render myself that they had merely given them worthy of your friendship, I have the shelter from storms, and would oblige honour to be, my Lord, your very othem to put to sea, so that the Bri- bliged and most humble servant. tish might themselves have an opportunity of taking them.” To this re On board the Alliance at the Terci, solution they adhered, notwithstand

Noo. 29, 1779. ing the warmest remonstrances of the MY LORD,-Since I had the honour British minister.

to receive your second esteemed letter, During the course of Jones's stay I have unexpectedly had occasion to at the Texel, he addressed the follow- revisit Amsterdam; and having changing letters to the Dutch Admiral, Ba- ed ships since my return to the Texel, ron Vander Capellen :

I have, by some accident or neglect,

lost or mislaid your letter. ' I rememOn board the Serapis at the Texel, ber, however, the questions it conOct. 19, 1779.

tained, viz. ist, Whether I ever had MY LORD,—Human nature, and any obligation to Lord Selkirk ? 2d, America, are under very singular obli- Whether he accepted my offer ? and, gations to you for your patriotism 3d, Whether I have a French comand friendship; and I feel every grate, mission ? I answer, I never had any ful sentiment for your generous and obligation to Lord Selkirk, except for polite letter.

his good opinion ; nor does he know Agreeable to your request, I have me or mine, except by character. the honour to inclose a copy of my Lord Selkirk wrote me an answer to letter to his Excellency Dr Franklin, my letter to the Countess; but the containing a particular account of my ministry detained it in the general late expedition on the coasts of Bri- post-office in London for a long time, tain and Ireland ; by which you will and then returned it to the author, see that I have already been praised who afterwards wrote to a friend of more than I have deserved. But I his, (Mr Alexander,) an acquaintance must, at the same time, beg leave to of Dr Franklin's, then at Paris, giving observe, that by the other popers him an account of the fate of his letwhich I take the liberty to inclose, ter to me, and desiring him to acquaint (particularly the copy of my letter to his Excellency and myself, that, “ if the Countess of Selkirk, dated the day the plate was restored by Congress, of my arrival at Brest from the Irish or by any public body, he would acSea,) I hope you will be convinced that cept it, but that he could not think of in the British prints I have been cen- accepting it from my private generosured unjustly. I was indeed born sity. The plate has, however, beer in Britain, but I do not inherit the bought, agreeable to my letter to the degenerate spirit of that fallen nation, Countess, and now lays in France at which I at once lament and despise. her disposal. As to the third article, It is far beneath me to reply to their I never bore, nor acted under any hireling invectives; they are strangers other commission than what I have to the inward approbation that greatly received from the Congress of the animates and rewards the man who United States of America. draws his sword only in support of

I am much obliged to you, my the dignity of freedom.

Lord, for the honour you do me by

proposing to publish the papers I sent esteem, I have the honour to be, Sir, you in my last; but it is an honour your most obedient and most humble which I must decline, because I can- servant,

B. FRANKLIN. not publish my letter to that Lady Hon. Paul Jones, Esq. without asking and obtaining the La We have also in our possession an oridy's consent, and because I have a ginal card of invitation to dinner from very modest opinion of my writings, La Fayette, which shews the esteem in being conscious that they are not of which he was held by that eminent sufficient value to claim the notice of character. He was satisfied as to his the public. I assure you, my Lord, claims, and returned to America. But, it has given me much concern to see in 1788, we find him offering his seran extract of my rough journal in vices to the Empress Catherine, by print, and that too under the disad- whom they were readily accepted. vantage of a translation. That mis- The following is the copy of a letter taken kindness of a friend will make addressed to him by her Imperial me cautious how I communicate my Majesty upon this occasion : papers. I have the honour to be, my Copie de la lettre de sa Majesté l'ImLord, with great esteem and respect, &c. &c.

peratrice de toutes les Russies au

Contre-Amiral de Paul Jones. Paul Jones continued in the Ame

Monsieur le Contre-Admiral rican service during the remainder of

Paul Jones. the war, and, on the 14th April 1781, Un Courier de Paris vient d'aporter, the Congress voted to him an address de la part de mon envoyé en France of thanks, and presented him with a

M. de Simolin, la lettre si-jointe au gold medal. Ai the peace of 1783, it Cte. de Besborodka. Comme je crois was agreed that Jones should return que cette lettre peut contribuer à vous some of the prizes taken during the war, confirmer la verité de ce que je vous but should receive a pecuniary indem- ai dit de bouche, je vous l'envoy, et nification. To arrange this transaction, vous prie de me la renvoyer parceque he sailed for France, and arrived at je n'en ai pas fait tirer de copie tant Paris, where he was received with je me suis hatez de vous la faire pargreat cordiality. In the course of his venir, J'espere qu'elle effacera tout residence there, he received the follow- doute de votre esprit, et qu'elle vous ing letter from Dr Franklin:

prouvera que vous allés avoir affaire à Havre, July 21, 1785. quelqu'un qui est très-favorablement DEAR S1B,—The offer, of which disposé à votre egard. Je ne doute you desire I would give you



de votre coté vous ne ticulars, was made to me by Mr Le tachiés de remplir parfaitement l'opiBaron de Walterstorff, in behalf of nion que nous avons de vous, et que his Majesty the King of Denmark, by vous vous appliqueré avec zêle à souwhose ministers he said he was autho- tenir la reputation et le nom que vous riz'd to make it. It was to give us ont acquis votre valeur et votre habithe sum of ten thousands pounds Ster- leté très reconnue sur l'element sur ling, as a compensation for having de- lequel vous allés servir. Adieu.-- Je liver'd up the prizes to the English. vous souhaite bonheur et bon santé. I did not accept it, conceiving it much

(Signed) CATHERINE. too small a sum, they having been A Czarskocelo, Falued to me at fifty thousand pounds. 11th May 1788. I wrote to Mr Hodgson, an insurer in What were the circumstances which London, requesting he would procure disgusted Jones with the service of information of the sums insur'd on her Imperial Majesty, we have not yet those Canada ships. His answer was, been able to learn ; but it appears that, that he could find no traces of such in 1790, he was engaged in a negociainsurance; and he believ'd none was tion for entering into the service of made ; for that the Government, on her enemies. This is proved by the whose account they were said to be following very curious doc ent, an loaded with military stores, never in- original letter from Kosciuszko, adsur'd; but, by the best judgment he dressed to “ The Honourable Vicecould make, he thought they might Admiral Paul Jones, Amsterdam," be worth about sixteen or eighteen written more politely than elegantly thousand pounds each. With great in English ;

Varsaw, 15th Feb. 1790. not be ascertained. The cutting of My Dear Sir, I had the honor the new road, however, has displayed to write you the 1st or the 3th of Feb. an extensive section of the strata ; and I do not recolect, but I gave you the this circumstance, united with others, information to apply to the Minister has unfolded, in a great measure, the of Svede at Hague, or at Amsterdam geognostic relations of the beds which for the propositions, (according to what form the entire hill. Mr D'Engestrom told me.) They Boths, The distinguished professor of mihad Orders to Communicate you. I neralogy in our university makes it a wish with all my heart that could en rule to visit this hill, accompanied by swer your expectation I am totally ig- the young gentlemen attending his norant what they are, but I would see class, and to point out the nature and you to fight against the opresion and relations of the rocks. We shall here Tyranny. Give me the news of every give, as succinctly as possible, an idea thing. I am, dear Sir, your most of the succession of these, or of the humble and most obedient servant, structure of the hill, such as we ga

T. KOSCIUSZKO. G. M. thered from attending the professor Write me if you please who is Mi on one of these excursions. nister from America at Paris ; I want In the course of some building opeto know his name.

rations at a brewery at the foot of This negociation does not seem to Calton Street, some time ago, (about have succeeded; and it is said that the beginning of the year 1816,) a bed Jones in vain solicited employment of sandstone, highly siliceous, or of the from France. He died at Paris in nature of quartzy sandstone, was ex1792, but not, as was stated in the posed to view ; and, from the dip and papers of that period, in poverty. On direction of this bed being to the east, the contrary, we have been assured, it was evident that it passed under the upon the best authority, since our great mass of the hill. Sandstone was first edition appeared, that he left a also partially displayed in digging the considerable sum, which was remitted foundation of the large building, in to his sisters in Scotland, the last of North Back of Canongate, lately erectwhom died at Dumfries on the 6th ed by Messrs Muir and Wood as a September 1817. (See page 196.) manufactory of musical instruments. The National Assembly voted a depu- Over the sandstone is a bed of portation of their members to attend his phyry, which, near to the buildings of funeral.–At a future period we hope the Bridewell, extends upwards alto be able to lay before our readers most to the level of the new road. To an interesting biographical notice of this succeeds a bed of greenstone, this extraordinary character.

which is visible in the section formed by the new road fronting Bridewell. In proceeding upwards, examining the series of rocks from the governor's

house to the base of Nelson's MonuMR EDITOR,

ment, we observe a bed of trap-tuff The new approach to Edinburgh Over this a bed of porphyry; then a on the south-east, by a road winding thin bed of greenstone ; a second bed of over a part of the Calton Hill, and trap-tull, of no great thickness; anojoining Prince's Street at the Regi- ther bed of greenstone ; a third bed of ster Office, is doubtless one of the most trap-tuff, and uppermost, a thick mass magnificent improvements of which of porphyry, forming the summit of this picturesque capital is susceptible. the hill, and supporting the monu

Our purpose, at present, is, not to ment. This bed of porphyry has long enlarge on the beauties and advan- been exposed, having many years ago tages of this new approach, but mere- been used as a quarry for affording ly to notice a favour which has, by small stones for laying on the high this improvement, been conferred on roads. It is now, however, more immineralogists, certainly without being mediately brought into view, in concontemplated by the public-spirited sequence of the fine walk lately made individuals who conceived it. Owing in front of it, by means of the funds to the uniform covering of debris and collected by the public for affording of sward on the east side of the Cal- employment to industrious workmen, ton Hill, the nature of the rocks con- thrown idle by the difficulties of the stituting a great part of the hill could times.



In pro

All the beds which have been men- more lately in clearing out the fountioned dip to the east, so that, in dation for the County Hall of Mid-Lowalking eastward, to the first turn of thian; and further, that both pass the new road, after passing Bridewell, under the Calton Hill. If all the inthe beds which pass immediately be- clined beds, from the sandstone seen low Nelson's Monument come to be running below the Castle basalt on the on a level with the road, and soon af- west side, to the sandstone and greenter even to dip under it. According- stone of Lochend on the east side, be, ly, we first meet with a bed of green- in the “mind's eye,” brought to a hostone inclining to wacke, and travers- rizontal position, so as to exhibit a ed by numerous veins of calcareous perpendicular section, the height or star; and immediately the porphyry thickness becomes indeed surprising. of the top comes in view.

It may be remarked, that the same ceeding further in the direction to- individual beds are not, in every part wards the east road to Leith, the sec- of their extent, of equal thickness ; on tion on the north side of the new road the contrary, they vary much in this has displayed a series of thin beds respect. For instance, some one of which lieover this porphyry, or which, the several beds of greenstone, which in geognostic situation, are superior to are thin on the S. E. side of the hill, those which constitute the geographi- has acquired considerable thickness cal summit of the hill. They occur where it appears in the quarry opened in the following order, proceeding on the N. E. side of the hill. The from below upwards: Bituminous bed alluded to lies over the sandstone shale ; wacke ; sandstone; bitumin- which has there been quarried, and is ous shale; wacke ; shale with iron- covered by a thin bed of bituminous stone ; wacke; shale and ironstone, shale. This inequality in thickness, (several times repeated ;) wacke, in a at different parts of the same bed, is a state of decomposition, so as to resem- fact perfectly familiar to those accusble fullers' earth; bituminous shale tomed to geognostic observation. and wacke, (several times repeated ;)

PAT. NEILL. and lastly, or geognostically upper Canonmills, 2d Aug. 1817. most, a thick bed of sandstone-conglomerate. Quarries have been opened ABSTRACT, WITH OBSERVATIONS, OP in this bed of sandstone; and the under storey of the new jail was built from it; the upper part of the building having, with good taste, been constructed of finer sandstone.

MR EDITOR, We thus find that the Calton Hill In the last number of the Scots consists of many beds of trap rocks, Magazine, I find inserted a valuable included between two great beds of document, the report of the Commitsandstone ; the lower of which is of tee of the House of Commons on the kind called quartzy sandstone; steam-boats. In a question, however, and the upper, sandstone-conglome- in which all classes of the community rate.

are so deeply interested, the public The alternation of beds of sand- will not be satisfied without examinstone and greenstone is seen again at ing for themselves the evidence from Lochend, to the eastward ; and, from which the report was drawn up. ! the dip and direction of these Lochend will frankly say, that the perusal beds, we are warranted to conclude suggested to me views of the subject that, if projected, they would pass not exactly agreeing with those which over the Calton Hill. On the other have been adopted by the Committee hand, the Castle rock, situated to the in their report. On this point, howwestward, consists of beds of sand- ever, your readers may be able to stone, and a thick bed of basalt; and, judge, when I lay before them the on the same data, we conclude, that principal statements actually made by this bed of basalt lies below the great those persons who were examined bebed of quartzy sandstone, on the ledge fore the Committee. of which the High Street of Edin The main points at issue are, wheburgh is built, and which was seen ther the engines in steam-boats ought in digging the foundation for the to be what is called high pressure, or Bank of Scotland some years ago, and whether they ought to be boilers of


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