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from her earliest childhood, she now not only refused to marry again, but resolved to become a nun. Love for her child long hindered her from this step; but finally (1632) she placed him in her sister's charge, and entered the Ursuline convent at Tours, where she made profession Jan. 25, 1633, under the name of Marie of the Incarnation. Some time during the following year, it would seem, she had a vision of a strange and distant country, in which the Virgin and Christ appointed her to labor; this was fulfilled, as she thought, when Madame de la Peltrie (vol. xi., note 4) invited her to take charge of the Ursuline house that she was about to establish in Canada. Another nun was appointed from the convent at Tours,— Marie de Savonnière de St. Joseph, aged 23; a third, Cécile Richer de la Croix, aged 30, was obtained from the Ursulines of Dieppe; and a young girl of nineteen, Charlotte Barré, accompanied them, who after her arrival in Canada took the veil, under the name of Mother St. Ignace. All these Ursulines, with the Hospital Nuns (note 2, ante) and several Jesuit missionaries, arrived at Quebec Aug. 1, 1639. The Ursulines were temporarily lodged in a small house near the river-bank; but in 1641 they removed to their own convent, built upon the site still occupied by them. These nuns have maintained, since their foundation, a school for girls, not only for French and Canadians, but for Indians-these last being for many years the especial objects of their care. For historical sketches of this convent, see Baunard's Vie de Marie de l'Incarnation, pp. 499-506; and Laroche-Héron's Servantes de Dieu. Marie of the Incarnation remained superior of this house until her death (Apr. 30, 1672), ruling it, amid many financial and other embarrassments, with great energy and wisdom, and winning the admiration and regard of all. Parkman says of her (Jesuits, p. 186): "She carried on a vast correspondence, embracing every one in France who could aid her infant community with money or influence; she harmonized and regulated it with excellent skill; and, in the midst of relentless austerities, she was loved as a mother by her pupils and dependents." Though a woman of ardent zeal and enthusiasm, she possessed great resolution, fortitude, and perseverance, and was gifted with unusual executive ability. She had also a talent for languages, and is said to have left an Algonkin dictionary, and numerous other MSS. in that tongue; these have disappeared, and it is supposed that they were destroyed with the convent, in the fire of 1686. Her correspondence, however, furnished material for Lettres spirituelles et historiques, collected by her son, and published in 1681; a new and enlarged edition has been published by Richaudeau (Tournai, 1876). A catechism (in French), written by her, was published by her son, in 1684; a third edition appeared at Tournai in 1878.
This son, Claude Martin, became a Benedictine priest, making his profession Feb. 3, 1642. He was a man of great talent and piety, and occupied many important and responsible positions in his order, being finally appointed (1668) an assistant to the Father General. He died at Marmoutiers, Aug. 9, 1696, leaving numerous religious works (mostly in MS.), notable among which is a biography of his mother (Paris, 1677). Other lives of this noted woman are those of Charlevoix (Paris, 1724), Casgrain (Quebec, 1864), Richaudeau (Paris, 1873; Tournai, 1874), Chapot (Paris, 1892), and Baunard (Paris, 1893). Marie was characterized by Bossuet as the "Theresa of her century and of the New World." She received beatification, by papal decree, in 1877.
5 (p. 17).—Roy says (Canada-Français, vol. ii., p. 448): "The country of Canada, considered as a prolongation of France on the other side of the Atlantic, was in some sort annexed to the province of Normandy. It was to the parliament of Rouen that belonged jurisdiction in the earlier legal matters concerning the colony; and it was from the archbishop of Rouen that the missionaries requested their credentials before embarkation. That prelate, regarding this land as a natural extension of his ecclesiastical domain, named its grand vicars."- Cf. Biard's argument as to ownership by France of lands across the sea (vol. iv. of this series, p. 109); also, concerning the appointment of grand vicars, Journ. des Jésuites, pp. 185–187. There were many other ties between New France and Normandy. From the latter province had come the majority of Canada's early settlers; and it was the merchants of Rouen and Dieppe who had the most important commercial interests in New France. The offices of the Hundred Associates were established at Rouen; and the parliament of that city was, for a time, charged by the king with jurisdiction over the colonies. As for religious affairs, they were at first ordered directly from Rome; later, the archbishop of Rouen practically became the spiritual head of the Canadian colony,—the missionaries (many of whom came from his diocese), and probably the secular priests as well, applying to him for grant or confirmation of their spiritual authority therein. Rochemonteix says (Jésuites, vol. ii., p. 203): "Thus the archbishop of Rouen, Primate of Normandy, became accustomed, little by little, to regard Canada as an integral part of his domain. It was Mgr. de Harlay, who exercised the first act of authority over New France; and his successor went so far as to maintain that the mere fact that he had sent to Canada priests of his diocese, placed that country under his authority." This claim was the beginning (1647) of a conflict for ecclesiastical supremacy in Canada, which was finally ended only by the peremptory recall to France (1659), by a royal lettre du cachet,
of Abbé de Queylus, "the last ecclesiastical dignitary from Rouen whom we had in this country" (Roy, ut supra). He was succeeded by Mgr. Laval, the first bishop of Canada.
6 (p. 19).— Reference is here made to Jean de Bernières-Louvigny, who greatly aided Madame de la Peltrie in her Canadian enterprise (vol. xi., note 4), and administered her affairs during her residence in Canada. He was also a counselor and friend of Marie of the Incarnation, and of Laval; and founded the Hermitage of Caen, a religious school and retreat of ascetic and mystical tendencies. A sketch of Bernières and his work is given by Gosselin in Henri de Bernières (Evreux, 1897), pp. 6-19. Cf. Chapot's Marie de l'Incarnation, t. i., pp. 433-440; and Parkman's Old Régime, pp. 88-95.
7 (p. 19). For sketch of Noël de Sillery, founder of this Indian settlement, see vol. xiv., note 12.
8 (p. 23). The Hospital Nuns, upon their arrival at Quebec, were lodged for a time in a new house belonging to the Hundred Associates, near Fort St. Louis. In June, 1640, they removed to the dwelling of Pierre de Puyseaux, at St. Michel de Sillery, while awaiting the completion of their convent there, which they entered in the spring of 1641.
9 (p. )71.— For sketch of the Attikamegues, see vol. ix., note 20. 10 (p. 83).- Desert: The French Canadians apply this term to an open piece of arable land, on which no trees are growing, to distinguish it from timbered land. These deserts, or natural meadows, would in all probability be the first places selected for cultivation by the savages, who were but ill provided with tools for cutting down trees. About twelve miles from Quebec, between Ancienne Lorette and La Jeune Lorette, there is a large plain called Le Grand Désert; it occupies a depression between the hills, apparently the bed of a former lake, and is very fertile.- CRAWFORD LINDSAY.
The Wisconsin River has its rise in Lac Vieux Désert, so named from an island in the lake, which was long cultivated by Indians. II (p. 101).-Abnaquiois: see vol. xii., note 22.
12 (p. 107). Cf. vol. iii., note 19.
13 (p. 191).- Bluets: the Canada blueberry, Vaccinium Canadense; described and figured by Charlevoix (Amer. Plantes, p. 52), who ascribes to it various medicinal properties. It is abundant throughout Canada, and, according to Clapin, "most of all in the Saguenay region, where every season it is gathered in enormous quantities." Champlain (Voyage of 1615) mentions this berry, with raspberries and other small fruits, as growing in marvelous abundance along the river-banks in Western Canada, and as dried for
winter use by the natives. Josselyn (New Eng. Rarities, Tuckerman's ed., p. 197) says of blueberries (called by him "sky-coloured bill-berries") and whortleberries: "The Indians dry them in the sun, and sell them to the English by the bushell; who make use of them instead of currence- putting of them into puddens, both boyled and baked, and into water-gruel." Roger Williams (Key to Amer. Lang., Narrag. Club ed., p. 122) makes a similar statement: " Sautaash are these currants dried by the Natives, and so preserved all the yeare, which they beat to powder, and mingle it with their parcht meale, and make a delicate dish which they cal Sautduthig; which is as sweet to them as plum or spice cake to the English." The Abnakis styled July "the berry-month," as the time when the blueberries ripened.
14 (p. 253).— Nation des Puants: the Winnebago tribe (vol. xv., note 7).
15 (p. 253).—Weanohronons (Wenrôhronons, Ahouenrochronons): see vol. viii., note 34. This is apparently a part of the tribe mentioned in Relation of 1641, as kindly receiving the missionaries at Khioetoa (St. Michel). The village is shown on Sanson's map (1656), a little east of the present site of Sandwich. In this case the "more than 80 leagues distance" to Ossossané would refer to the distance of the latter from St. Michel, rather than from the first location of the tribe on the borders of the Iroquois.”—A. F. HUNTER.