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by him, or being disapproved, shall be repassed by both houses according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
17. Whenever the office of governor shall become vacant by death, resignation, removal from office, or otherwise, the president of the senate shall exercise the office of governor until another governor shall be duly qualified ; and in case of the death, resignation, removal from office, or other disqualification of the president of the senate so exercising the office of governor, the speaker of the house of representatives shall exercise the office, until the president of the senate shall have been chosen ; and when the office of governor, president of the senate, and speaker of the house shall become vacant, in the recess of the senate, the person acting as secretary of state for the time being, shall by proclamation convene the senate, that a president may be chosen to exercise the office of governor.
18. When either the president or speaker of the house of representatives shall so exercise said office, he shall receive the compensation of governor only, and his duties as president or speaker shall be suspended, and the senate or house of representatives, as the case may be, shall fill the vacancy until his duties as governor shall cease.
19. A sheriff, and one or more coroners, a treasurer, surveyor, and ranger shall be elected in each county by the qualified electors thereof, who shall hold their offices for two years, unless sooner removed ; except that the coroner shall hold his office until his successor be duly qualified.
20. A state treasurer and auditor of public accounts shall be elected by the qualified electors of the state, who shall hold their offices for the term of two years, unless sooner removed.
Militia. $ 1. The legislature shall provide by law for organizing and disciplining the militia of this state, in such manner as they shall deem expedient, not incompatible with the constitution and laws of the United States, in relation thereto.
2. Commissioned officers of the militia (staff officers and the officers of volunteer companies excepted) shall be elected by the persons liable to perform military duty, and the qualified electors within their respective commands, and shall be commissioned by the governor.
3. The governor shall have power to call forth the militia to execute the laws of the state, to suppress insurrection, and repel invasion.
Impeachments. § 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching.
2. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate. When sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be on oath or affirmation. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
3. The governor, and all civil officers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office, but judgment in such cases shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honour, trust, or profit under the state : but the party convicte ed shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to law, as in other cases.
General Provisions. § 1. Members of the legislature, and all officers, executive and judicial, before they enter upon the duties of their respective offices, shall take the following oath or affirmation, to wit: “I solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I will support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of Mississippi, so long as I continue a citizen thereof, and that I will faithfully discharge to the best of my abilities the duties of the office of according to law. So help me God.”
2. The legislature shall pass such laws to prevent the evil practice of duelling as they may deem necessary, and may require all officers, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, to take the following oath or affirmation : " I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I have not been engaged in a duel, by sending or accepting a challenge to fight a duel, or by fighting a duel since the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirtythree, nor will I be so engaged during my continuance in office. So help me God.”
3. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.
4. Every person shall be disqualified from holding an office or place of honour or profit under the authority of this state, who shall be convicted of having given or offered any bribe to procure his election. Laws shall be made to exclude from office and from suffrage those who shall thereafter be convicted of bribery, perjury, forgery, or other high crimes or misdemeanors. The privilege of free suffrage shall be supported by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence therein, from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper conduct.
5. No person who denies the being of a God, or a future state of re. wards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil department of this state.
6. No law of a general nature, unless otherwise provided for, shall be enforced until sixty days after the passage thereof.
7. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of an appropriation made by law, nor shall any appropriation of money for the support of an army be made for a longer term than one year.
8. No money from the treasurer shall be appropriated to objects of internal improvement, unless a bill for that purpose be approved by two-thirds of both branches of the legislature; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of public moneys shall be published annually.
9. No law shall ever be passed to raise a loan of money upon the credit of the state, or to pledge the faith of the state or the payment or redemption of any loan or debt, unless such law be proposed in the senate or house of representatives, and be agreed to by a majority of the members of each house, and entered on their journals with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and be referred to the next succeeding legislature, and
published for three months previous to the next regular election, in three newspapers of the state ; and unless a majority of each branch of the legislature, so elected, after such publication, shall agree to, and pass such law; and in such case the yeas and nays shall be taken, and entered on the journals of each house: Provided, that nothing in this section shall be so construed as to prevent the legislature from negotiating a further loan of one and a half million of dollars, and vesting the same in stock reserved to the state by the charter of the Planters' Bank of the state of Mississippi.
10. The legislature shall direct, by law, in what manner and in what courts, suits may be brought against the state.
11. Absence on business of this state, or of the United States, or on a visit, or necessary private business, shall not cause a forfeiture of citizenship or residence once obtained.
12. It shall be the duty of the legislature to regulate, by law, the cases in which deductions shall be made from salaries of public officers for neglect of duty in their official capacity, and the amount of such deduction.
13. No member of congress, nor any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, (the office of post-master excepted,) or any other state, of the union, or under any foreign power, shall hold or exercise any office of trust or profit under this state.
14. Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government, the preservation of liberty, and the happiness of mankind, schools, and the means of education, shall for ever be encouraged in this
15. Divorces from the bonds of matrimony shall not be granted, but in cases provided for by law, by suit in chancery.
16. Returns of all elections by the people shall he made to the secretary of state in such manner as may be prescribed by law.
17. No new county shall be established by the legislature, which shall reduce the county or counties, or either of them, from which it may be taken, to less contents than five hundred and seventy-six square miles; nor shall any new county be laid off of less contents.
18. The legislature shall have power to admit to all the rights and privileges of free white citizens of this state, all such persons of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes of Indians, as shall choose to remain in this state, upon such terms as the legislature may from time to time
Slaves. $1. The legislature shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves without the consent of their owners, unless where the slave shall have rendered to the state some distinguished service; in which case the owner shall be paid a full equivalent for the slave so emancipated. They shall have no power to prevent emigrants to this state from bringing with them such persons as are deemed slaves by the laws of any one of the United States, so long as any person of the same age or description shall be continued in slavery by the laws of this state: Provided, that such person or slave be the bona fide property of such emigrants ; and provided, also, that laws may be passed to prohibit the introduction into this state of slaves who may have committed high
crimes in other states. They shall have power to pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and preventing them from becoming a public charge. They shall have full power to oblige the owners of slaves to treat them with humanity; to provide for them necessary clothing and provisions; to abstain from all injuries to them, extending to life or limb; and in case of their neglect or refusal to comply with the directions of such laws, to have such slave or slaves sold for the benefit of the owner or owners.
2. The introduction of slaves into this state as merchandise, or for sale, shall be prohibited from and after the first day of May, eighteen hundred and thirty-three : Provided, that the actual settler or settlers shall not be prohibited from purchasing slaves in any state in this union, and bringing them into this state for their own individual use, until the year eighteen hundred and forty-five.
3. In the prosecution of slaves for crimes of which the punishment is not capital, no inquest by a grand jury shall be necessary ; but the proceedings in such cases shall be regulated by law.
Mode of revising the Constitution. Whenever two-thirds of each branch of the legislature shall deem any change, alteration, or amendment necessary to this constitution, such proposed change, alteration, or amendment shall be read and passed by a majority of two-thirds of each house respectively on each day, for three several days. Public notice thereof shall then be given by the secretary of state, at least six months preceding the next general election, at which the qualified electors shall vote directly for or against such change, alteration, or amendment; and if it shall appear that a majority of the qualified electors voting for members of the legislature, shall have voted for the proposed change, alteration, or amendment, then it shall be inserted by the next succeeding legislature, as a part of this constitution, and not otherwise.
§ 1. All rights vested, and all liabilities incurred, shall remain the same as if this constitution had not been adopted.
2. All suits at law or in equity, now pending in the several courts of this state, may be transferred to such court as may have proper jurisdiction thereof.
3. The governor and all officers, civil and military, now holding commissions under the authority of this state, shall continue to hold and exercise their respective offices until they shall be superseded, pursuant to the provisions of this constitution, and until their successors be duly qualified.
4. All laws now in force in this state, not repugnant to this constitution, shall continue to operate until they shall expire by their own limitation, or be altered or repealed by the legislature.
5. Immediately upon the adoption of this constitution, the president of this convention shall issue writs of election directed to the sheriffs of the several counties, requiring them to cause an election to be held on the first Monday and day following in December next, for members of the legislature, at the respective places of holding elections in said coun
ties, which elections shall be conducted in the manner prescribed by the existing election laws of this state: and the members of the legislature thus elected, shall continue in office until the next general election, and shall convene at the seat of government on the first Monday in January, an election to
in every county of this state, on the first Monday in May and day following, eighteen hundred and thirty-three, for all state and county officers under this constitution, (members of the legislature excepted,) and the officers then elected shall continue in office until the succeeding general election and after, in the same manner as if the election had taken place at the time last aforesaid.
6. Until the first enumeration shall be made, as directed by this constitution, the apportionment of senators and representatives among the several districts and counties in this state shall remain as at present fixed by law.
P. RUTILIUS R. PRAY,
President of the Convention, and Representative from the county of Hancock. Attest, John H. MALLORY, Secretary.
CONSTITUTION OF ILLINOIS.
The Constitution of the State of Nlinois, adopted in convention, at
Kaskaskia, on the twenty-sixth day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, and of the independence of the United States the forty-third.
The people of the Illinois territory, having the right of admission into the general government, as a member of the Union, consistent with the constitution of the United States, the ordinance of congress of 1787, and the law of congress“ approved April 18th, 1818,” entitled “ An act to enable the people of the Mlinois territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, and for other purposes ; in order to establish justice, promote the welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to themselves and their posterity, do, by their representatives in convention, ordain and establish the following constitution or form of government; and do mutually agree with each other to form themselves into a free and independent state, by the name of the state of Illinois. And they do hereby ratify the boundaries assigned to such state by the act of congress aforesaid, which are as follows, to wit: beginning at the mouth of the Wabash river, thence, up the same, and with the line of Indiana, to the north-west comer of said state ; thence, east, with the line of the same state, to the middle of lake Michigan; thence, north, along the middle of said lake, to north latitude forty-two degrees and