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W. C. WOOLEY, MARION.

(1) As to the general plan upon which Federal aid should be given, in my opinion, you should cooperate with the State highway commissioner, but by all means have a Government representative to carry out the Government part. I would suggest that the Government

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cent and the State 50 per cent. (3) On what character of roads should the amount appropriated by Federal Government be used!

By all means, the old National Road through Ohio should be rebuilt and intersectional roads from one county seat to another.

I would suggest that the appropriation be made for construction and maintenance.

I should think that there should be Government supervision over construction and maintenance.

I recently built eight miles of the old National Road for Franklin County, just west of Columbus, which is considered the best piece of macadam road in the State of Ohio. It is what we call a tar-bound macadam.

I have also built a number of water-bound macadam roads through the State of Ohio.

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OREGON.

HENRY L. BOWLBY, EXECUTIVE OFFICER, PACIFIC HIGHWAY ASSOCIATION,

PORTLAND.

(1) I believe that under the direction of the Government a system of Federal post roads should be established. This should consist of a simple system of national trunk highways. Federal aid should be given in each State according to the mileage of such Federal post roads in that State and according to the cost of construction of such roads. Across some of the Middle Western States, where road construction is very simple, the amounts of Federal aid per mile should be less than in the Mountain States, where the road construction will be comparatively expensive. The Government should specify that these post roads should be located with a maximum grade of 5 per cent, and with a minimum radius of curvature of 100 feet. A right of way. 60 feet wide should be required. The graded roadway should be at least 24 feet in width, and the road surfaced with material suitable to stand the traffic which will come upon it. This, of course, must be determined by the Government authorities.

(2) The amount which each State should be asked to contribute toward the construction of these post roads should be determined by the Government authorities, taking into consideration the development of the State, its population, and resources. Naturally, under such conditions, the greatest amount of Federal-aid money would be used in building national trunk highways across the more sparsely populated States of the Union. This is as it should be, the older and richer sections of the country helping the development of the newer States.

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(3) All roads constructed under Federal aid should be of the highest class of modern road construction; that is, the roads should be located in the proper place, they should be graded in a permanent manner to a proper width, they should be surfaced in a scientific manner, the surfacing corresponding to the amount of traffic over each section of the road. Federal-aid money should not in any case be used in building mere trails.

(4) The maintenance of the roads being as important as their construction, this will have to be provided for according to the conditions found in each State. In those States where a competent State highway department exists, the maintenance of the roads might be turned over to the State. In those States where no properly developed State highway department exists the maintenance should be under the direct supervision of the Government officials. To start with, 5 per cent of all appropriations should be set aside for maintenance. This may have to be increased later.

(5) All roads completed under Federal aid should remain under Federal supervision. When a road has been constructed in a State and turned over to that State for maintenance, the Government should still retain sufficient supervision to compel the proper maintenance of the road. The Government should also prescribe regulations for maintaining all Federal-aid post roads. The Government should have complete supervision of the construction of all Federal-aid post roads; that is, when the Government aids a State in the construction of a road, the Government should have the authority to prescribe how the roads should be built.

(6) The details of operation of a system of Federal aid to road construction would work out naturally between the Government officials in charge of the road work and the various State highway departments. The inauguration of Federal aid would encourage the establishment of State highway departments in those States which have not yet advanced that far in modern road building.

SOUTH DAKOTA.

SAMUEL H. LEA, STATE ENGINEER, PIERRE.

With regard to Federal participation in the work of improving highways in the various States, any such work should be carried out in accordance with a general plan which should be comprehensive and equitable and at the same time sufficiently moderate in scope to allow being carried out without extravagance. It is thought that some form of substantial aid by the General Government to the various States and communities can be worked out whereby practical results can be obtained with due regard to economy.

(1) A general plan to be effective should comprise a practical method of furnishing aid with due regard to local conditions and requirements in the various parts of the Union where road work will be undertaken. Some method should be devised whereby, such aid would be given in conformity with local requirements and in accordance with the extent of cooperation that would be afforded locally.

A general plan should be sufficiently broad in its scope to allow the proper exercise of discretionary authority on the part of the Federal department charged with its execution. The expenditure

of money appropriated for Federal aid should be conditioned upon some schedule of cooperation with the State or community that is interested. It would be advisable to designate the conditions upon which Federal aid would be given and the extent of such aid within certain stated limits. One condition of Federal aid should be the establishment by the State of a highway department, with authority to cooperate with the agencies of the Federal Government and to formulate the necessary rules and regulations for road work in the State.

(2) With regard to the proportion of cost that should be contributed by State or local authorities for road improvement it is thought that ordinarily the cost should be equally divided between the Federal Government and the State. In this State, under present conditions, such an arrangement would probably be sufficiently attractive to cause the money to be raised locally for a projected road. In some cases a smaller proportion of the construction cost than onehalf could be paid by the Federal Government with an agreement that Federal aid shaủl be applied to maintenance after completing the road.

(3) In my opinion, Federal aid for roads should be given primarily to main or national highways, extending across several States and connecting widely separated communities. Such roads being interstate, are naturally eligible for national aid and attention. After completion they will serve as model roads for the various States and communities through which they pass. They will also constitute arteries of travel and traffic, and lateral roads will be built to connect with them at various points throughout their length.

Postal roads or rural delivery routes should also receive Federal aid to some extent. This could take the form of some designated sum per

mile per annum for maintenance, to be paid under certain conditions requiring local construction of bridges and culverts and other work of construction or repair.

(4) Maintenance may be considered as being of equal importance with construction, since no road, however well built, will remain good unless properly maintained. Road work is largely maintenance, and no system of roads should be constructed unless adequate provision is made for maintenance.

It is thought that Federal aid should comprise both construction and maintenance.

(5) In all cases where Federal aid is given Federal supervision should be comprehensive. For an interstate road it is considered advisable that the entire line should be under some central authority, with power to provide general rules and regulations. For intrastato roads State supervision would be applicable with incidental Federal authority. In some cases joint Federal and State supervision might be preferable.

(6) Where there is Federal and State cooperation in construction and maintenance all general plans and specifications would either be prepared or approved by the Federal authorities, who would have general supervision of construction and maintenance work under certain conditions. State highway departments would, of course, be consulted regarding local conditions and requirements; they would be requested to prepare estimates and specifications for proposed work and to make recommendations concerning same.

After the approval and adoption of plans the work could be done under State supervision; an arrangement could be made whereby a State highway department could appoint as assistants such persons in the service of the Federal department as might be designated by that department; these to be in local charge of road work and to be paid out of the Federal appropriation.

W. H. STOKES, WATERTOWN.

(1) The establishing of a national highway commission. This commission to be composed of five members, appointed by the President and confirmed by Congress.

This highway commission to be under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior. Its duties would be the locating, building, and maintaining transcontinental highways and interstate highways, with a corps of competent engineers to supervise, locate, build, and maintain the national highways.

(2) This expense to be borne by the National Government through appropriations by Congress. The appropriations for this purpose should be sufficient to build and maintain one transcontinental highway east and west and one interstate road north and south every five years, to be constructed and maintained in a reasonable passable condition. These national roads to be established and maintained at Government expense in the ratio of about one road east and west, one road north and south, every five years.

(3) These national highways to be the foundation of a system for State highways to be intersected by the State roads, both latitudinally and longitudinally. State legislation and appropriation to be uniform and in harmony with national legislation in the locating and maintaining of State roads. This to be followed by county and township cooperation. These State, county, and township laws to be formulated and recommended to the different States by your honorable committee, so there may be, in the commencement of this important movement, a uniformity and thorough system of establishing and maintaining roads throughout the United States.

This answers briefly interrogations 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6.

I take the liberty in presenting to your honorable committee suggestions as to State legislation.

First. That each State establish a highway commission composed of three members, appointed by the governor and confirmed by the State legislature, to establish, construct, and maintain State roads, under the supervision of the State engineer or some other compe

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Second. That a 2 mill tax be levied and collected for the establishing, building, and maintaining of the public roads, one-half mill on the dollar to be converted in to the State treasury, payable on the order of the State highway commission, for the establishing, building, and maintaining of the State roads, and 1} mills on the dollar to revert to the county treasurer from which county it emanates, to be paid out on the order of the county commissioners, for the establishing, building, and maintaining of the county roads, and the road work to be done under the supervision of the county engineer or some other competent person.

Third. That each State license automobiles, basing the amount of the license on the size and horsepower of cars, making the minimum license $2 and the maximum license $10 per car per annum. Fifty per cent of this amount so collected to be converted in to the State treasury, to be paid out on the order of the State highway commission for the establishing, building, and maintaining of State roads, and 50 per cent of the amount so raised to revert back to the county treasurer, to be paid out on the order of the county commis- . sioners, under the direction of the county engineer, for the establishing, building, and maintaining of county roads.

This would give available funds sufficient to make good progress in the establishing and maintaining of State and county roads.

M. P. BEEBE, PRESIDENT, TWIN CITY-ABERDEEN-YELLOWSTONE PARK TRAIL,

IPSWICH.

I have given the question of good roads some thought, and it is quite clear to me that Federal aid should not be given; that the Government should outline the roads to cover the entire United States and build same. If it is left to the States there will not be any system so far as the whole country is concerned.

In my judgment, there should be three or more main lines running from coast to coast and as many from the Canadian border to the Gulf and old Mexico. Other lines could be built connecting with the main or trunk lines. The building and maintenance should be cared for by the Government.

Allow me to suggest that there should be a national commission, composed of one representative from each State and Territory. This would make the movement very much more popular with our representatives at Washington, and, in my judgment, would be far better than a commission made up of representatives of the different industries.

J. L. WHITE, VICE PRESIDENT, SOUTH DAKOTA GOOD ROADS ASSOCIATION,

SIOUX FALLS.

As a rule, I am not in favor of small units; I believe a State should be as small a unit as should be considered. The good-road enthusiasts of this State have perfected a State organization, and if we succeed in getting through our legislature this winter the proposed laws that our organization has framed up it will give us about $150,000 to be used in road construction this coming season and will be increased yearly, which in a short time will give us a quarter of a million annually. I believe that the Federal Government should be asked to equal the amount the State raises, and I believe the full amount so raised should be so expended in building permanent roads. I believe the maintenance of these roads should be left to the counties.

The supervision of said road building, I believe, should be done by the Federal Government, but the roads to be built or location of same should be left to the State.

Our State organization is very anxious to build a State road, or rather two of them, running east and west across the State, and later iwo more roads running north and south through the State, and laterals to be built to these roads as fast as practical.

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