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25

237

Euler .....

PAGE

PAGE
Chiasm..
51, 297, 302 Dispersion..

26
Choroid coat.
13, 14, 52 Divergence of eye-sockets.

289
Chromatism, correction of........

of the optic axis.

289
correction of, hint for..... 29 Dolland....

29
Ciliary body..
13 Donders ...

199
muscle

13, 15 Double images. ... 107, 287, 288, 289
processes

15 analogues of, in other senses. 111
Claparède.

215 experiments illustrating.. 108–111
Colors, primary versus secondary. 90 Drowsiness, double images seen in. 287
Brewster's view of.

90
Helmholtz's view of.... 90, 91, 94

E
Hering's view of.
91, 94 Ectoderm...

3
Mrs. Franklin's theory.. ..... 94-98 Elongation of the figures of phan-
· Young's view of...

90, 94

tom plane...
Color blindness.....
98-104 Emmetropy..

40, 41
intensity versus.
89 Empiristic theory

121
tests for..
104 Endoderm.

3
theories of.
99-102 Epithelial system.

2
perception of.
89, 92 Erect vision.

69
Combination by the use of the

29
stereoscope...
153 Evolution of the eye....

303
of images of different objects. 125 of the invertebrate eye....... 303
of images of dissimilar ob- -- of the vertebrate eye.

306
jects....
125 Experience, inherited....

122
of images of similar objects.. 129 Experiments illustrating the com-

of images of many similar bination of images of dissimilar
objects.....
133 objects ...

125-129
Cones, rods and.

54 illustrating the combination of
Conjunctiva....

10, 13, 15 images of similar objects.... 129-133
Consensual adjustments..

122

illustrating the combination
adjustments, dissociation of...136 of images of many similar ob.
Convergent motion, laws of....... 199 jects regularly arranged .... 133-136
motion, difficulty in experi- Eye, adjustment for light

31
menting on......

199

adjustment for distance.. 35
motion, experiments showing

adjustment of the

44
rotation on optic axis in..... 201-208 an optical instrument..... 24, 138
Cornea .......
13, 14, 15

11
Corresponding points, retinal and

defects of the, as an instru-
spatial.....

67
ment..

40
diagram representing...

68
evolution of the.

303
corresponding points of the

form and setting.

9
two retinæ.......

112, 113
malpositions of the.

12
law of.....

114, 123
muscles of the...

10
relation of the optic chiasm

perfecting of the vertebrate.. 310
to the law of.

119, 298
structure of the..

9
Crystalline (lens)...

16, 30, 31

transition from invertebrate
to vertebrate......

809
D

comparison of the camera
Deal board, to see through a...... 285 with the..

24, 164
Dextrality....

109
vertebrate

306
Dim-sightedness...

46 vertebrate, evolu:ion of the... 307

axis of ...

52, 53

PAGE

PAGE
Eye, white of the..

13 Helmholtz's views, experiments
Eyeball. ...

13
testing.....

218-222
contents of
16 Hermann, Ludimar..

31
invertebrate
303 Hering ..

210
linings of...

14 Heteronymous shifting of the two
--- structure of..
17 fields of view..

280
Eye-spot......

304 experiments illustrating...280-280

shifting of the two fields of
F

view, statement of the law of ... 258
Far-sightedness

43 shifting of the two fields of
Fibrous layer..

view, curious phenomena result-
Field, binocular

106
ing from.........

280
of darkness

66, 106 Homonymous rotation of the two
of view.

66, 106
fields....

259
Focal cone, diagram showing the

rotation of the two fields, ex-
form of, in the astigmatic eye...

43 periments illustrating.. 259-263
Focal adjustment accommodation 35 rotation of the two fields, state-
Forin...
181 ment of the law of..

264
outline..
181 Horopter, definition of.

118, 213
solid

181 Meissner's investigations. 210, 223
Formation of the image.

17 - different opinions as to the
conditions of perfect image... 18

nature of the....

215
experiment..

20 Claparède's view of the....... 215
illustrations...

20

Helmholtz's conclusions re-
diagram showing formation of garding the.....

216, 218
image

22 confirmation by the author of
Fovea..

300

Meissner's views of the...... 223-29
centralis..

55, 76, 29, 300 conclusions in regard to the .. 227
wanting in mammals (except

difference between the au-
anthropoid apes)

300 thor's and Meissner's view of the 227
Franklin, Mrs..

96, 199 Horopteric circle of Müller. 117, 214, 215
Fuchs...

39 Human eye, general structure of.. 9
muscles of the

10
G
Humor, aqueous.

13, 26
vitreous...

17
General changes in the eye as we

Hypermetropy

42
ascend the vertebrate scale 310
General sensibility related to spe-

flyperopy.

41, 42
cial sense.....

1-8
structure of the human eye...

I

9
Gradation among senses

Identical points.
3

111
in kind of contact..

Image, light.
5

165, 166
in distance of perception

invisible.
5

165, 166
- in refinement of organ.....

lens.
6

305
Granular and nuclear layer..... 52, 54

visible..

165, 166
formation of..

17
conditions of a perfect..

18
H

Images, combination of the, of dif-
Helmholtz's laws of ocular motion 196 ferent objects...

125
- view as to the relation of - double...

107, 287
apparent and real vertical me- - diagram showing formation
ridian....

218 of.

22

21, 35

of ..........

lutea....

PAGE

PAGE
Images, diagram showing the for-

Laws, second, of binocular vision. 263
mation of a lens image...

Layers of the retina.....

52
diagram showing the forma-

of the retina, functions of .... 55
tion of a pinhole image.

19
Lens..

13, 15
diagram showing the inclina-

crystalline

16
tion of vertical and horizontal

capsule of
images.
188

.... 16, 39
property of a

20
heteronymous..

110, 116

section showing structure.. 31
homonymous

110, 116
achromatic

28
superposition of external..... 124

plano-concave

28
Interocular space, determination

Leonardo da Vinci.

92
265
Light....

7
Inverse perspective...

154
objective.

8
perspective, experiments illus-

subjective.....

8
trating..

156-161

transparency of lens to.. 16
Iris..

3, 14, 15
Linings of the eyeball ..

14
J
Long-sightedness...

43
Judgments of distance

176

M
of form..

181
of size..

177
Macula centralis.

76
of size, experiments illustrat-

77
ing

179

Meissner's investigations on the
gradations of...

181
horopter..

223
visual..

182

results with the horopter... 235
intellectual

182
Mesoderm..

3
Millstone, to see through a.

285
L
Minimum visibile.

80
tactile..

81
Law, first, of binocular vision ..... 258

Monocular vision.

9
first, of vision.....

59

vision, explanation of phe-
of corresponding points.. 114, 123

nomena of..
of differentiation

50, 59
2
Müller.....

215
of fatigue.

65
Muscæ volitantes..

62
of visible direction. 67, 123
Muscles, straight..

10
of direction, illustrations of

superior rectus

10
the...

73-76
inferior rectus.

10
of direction, opposed to the

external rectus

10
law of corresponding points..... 293

internal rectus.

10
of outward projection of ret-

oblique....

10
inal impressions.....

illustrations of actions of.. 12
of outward projection of ret-
Myopy.....

41
inal impressions, illustrations of 61

a structural defect

45
of Listing... 185, 195, 212, 218
second, of vision..

67
Laws of ocular motion.

185

N
of parallel motion. 185, 193, 194, 199 | Nativistic theory.

121
of convergent motion.. 199 Nautilus, eye of...

305
brief statement of
264 Near-sightedness..

41
of parallel motion....
185 Nerve-fiber terminals.

54
of parallel and convergent Nerves, olfactive.....

2
motion compared.....
211 optic....

2, 10

59

41, 43

45

PAGE

PAGE
Nerves, auditive..
2 Perspective, binocular.

162
gustative...
2 different forms of..

161
Nerve system..
23 focal......

162, 163
Nodal point....
21, 23 inverse...

154
Nutritive system.

2 mathematical

162, 153, 17
monocular.

162, 163
O
Phantom not a plane..

238
Ocular divergence, binocular vis- - plane not parallel to the real
ual phenomena in.
287 plane....

234
divergence, other modes of

planes, peculiarities of....... 234
producing

290 Phantoms, formation of...... 124, 234
spectra..
63, 207 Phosphenes ..

61
Eil cyclopienne.
254, 261, 206 Pinhole image.

19, 20, 305
Old-sightedness

43
Point of sight..

208, 212
Opposition of law of direction to i resbyopy.
law of corresponding points..... 293

- a functional defect.
of law of direction to law of

Prévost..

170, 215
corresponding points, explana-

Priestley..

75
tion of...

29:3-295 Primary visual plane defined..... 200
Optic axes
297 Pseudoscopy.

154
axes, position of..

298
monocular.

161
chiasm.
51, 297 Pupil ..

14
chiasm related to correspond-
Purple, visual.

57
ing points
119 Purkinje's figures..

C2
chiasm in lower animals..... 297
chiasm not found in inverte-

R

298 Rate of transmission of nerve im-
-nerve........... 2, 10, 13, 15, 51, 52 pressions

1
Outline, diagrammatic, of fields of Refraction..

26
view of right and left eyes, etc.. 258 Relation of general sensibility to
of a picture, trace......

280
special sense...

1
- of a candle-flame, to trace.... 283 Retina..

13, 15, 52
Oversightedness...

42
enlarged section of

53
generalized section of

52
P

internal view of, showing ves-
Parallel lines seen in perspec- sels of......

62
tive......

236
structure of.

50, 183
motion, laws of..

185 cut, showing section of... 51, 52
motion, laws of, experiments

rods and cones of.

5+
illustrating.....
185-193 function of

59
motion, statement of the laws

central spot of the..... 52, 55, 300
of

194, 195 Representation, new mode of dia-
- motion, Helmholtz's contrary grammatic..

266
statement of the laws of ........ 196 Retinal and spatial corresponding
Parinaud...

57 points......

67, 112, 113
Patella ..

305 - impressions, law of outward
Perception of color.
89, 92 projection of...

59
- of space...
58 Rods and cones.

54
Perfecting of the vertebrate eye... 310 Rood ....

171
Periscopism ..
31 Rotation, only apparent.

197
Perspective, aërial. .162, 163, 177 on the optic axis..

197

brates ....

PAGE

PAGE
Rotation, real........
199 System, nerve

2
- effect of elevation and depres-

blood...

2
sion of the visual plane on...... 209
experiments illustrating. 209, 210

T
cause of the....

210 Theories of the origin of the law of
Meissner's experiments on.... 210 corresponding points... 120-122
Theory of adjustment..

38
Theory, nativistic...

121
s
empiristic....

121
Sclerotic coat.....

13, 15, 52
of color perception..

92
Sensation, general.

1

of color perception, Hering... 94
Sense-organ

of color perception, Mrs.
Senses, gradation among..

3
Franklin

96
Sensibility, relation of general to

of color perception, Stanly
special sense....

Hall's.....

93
Sensory nerve-fibers.

1

of color perception, Young-
Sight compared with other senses

Helmholtz ..

92
6, 59, 70
Torsion....

193–195, 198, 199
normal.

41

Transition from invertebrate to
Singlu vision..

vertebrate eye.......
112

309
conditions of.

114, 115

Transmission of nerve impressions,
Snail.

305
rate of...

1
Solen.

304

Transverse arching of phantom
Space perception..
58

238
plane, explanation of the....

305

Trochus
Spectrum..
26

105
Spherical co-ordinates and dia-

Two eyes, a single instrument.

view of the, with optic nerves. 51
gram showing the projection
of.

192
Spots, diagram showing place of

V
the invisible, in the field of

Verticals and horizontals of the
vision.

88

experimental plane inclined 11°. 205
Squinting.

12 Verticals inclined 10°, horizontals
Stereoscopy
144

206
Stereoscopic pictures....

145
Vision, binocular

8, 9
pictures, method of taking 146

monocular..

8, 9
pictures, combination of...... 147

first law of..

59
pictures, combination with the

double, in alcoholic inebriety. 289
naked eye of...

147 Visual phenomena in ocular diver-
pictures, experiments illustra-

gence....

287
ting combination with the naked

purple...

57
149, 153 Vitreous body.

13
phenomena, application of

humor.

13, 17, 52, 305
new mode of representation to.. 273 Volkmann

199
Stevens, Prof. Le Conte.......

240
Superposition of external images. 124

Z
System, nutritive..

5o .....

eye of.

13

2 | Zonule of Zinn...

THE END.

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