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by all the neighbouring nations in pastoral melody, and sweet combination of sounds: And my will and meaning is, that, in the event of the establishment of such professorship as aforesaid, the Principal and Professors of the said University do, and shall, within six months next after such an event shall have taken place, by a public ordinance of the University, make a declaration of what, in their estimation, the annual and perpetual salary to be allowed to such Professor of Music ought to amount to; the sum not being less than £.300 of good and lawful money of Great Britain; and that upon such declaration being so made as aforesaid, and notice thereof in writing given to my said trustees, or to the survivors or survivor of them as aforesaid, and due provision made for securing the payment of such yearly salary after the amount thereof has been ascertained in the manner aforesaid ; they, my said trustees, or the survivors or survivor of them, or the executors or administrators of such survivors, shall, and do by such instrument or instruments as may, by the law of Scotland, be in such case requisite, make over the residue of my said last-mentioned personal estate to the Principal and Professors of the said University, for the purposes aforesaid ; and by the instrument declare, that the power and right of presentation or nomination of such professorship, and the superintendence, care, and management of the said fund, shall, on their decease, be vested in, and be perpetually enjoyed in all time thereafter, by the Principal and Professors of the said University for the time being; and that in case of misbehaviour, or neglect properly to discharge his or their duty on the part of any Professor or Professors of the Theory of Music, from time to time to be appointed as aforesaid, the Principal and Professors of the said University for the time being, or the major part of them, shall have power in their discretion, to dismiss such Professor or Professors, and to elect another or others in his or their place, and generally to establish, from time to time, such rules and regulations as may, in their opinion, contribute to give stability, respectability, and consequence, to the establishment, and thereby carry my intentions into effect: And as I am the last representative of an old family in Perthshire, which on my death will be extinct in the male line, I therefore leave two portraits of me; one when a Lieutenant in the Earl of Loudoun's regiment, raised in the year 1745, and the other when a Major-General in the army, to the Principal and Professors of the said University of Edinburgh, to be disposed of in such manner as the Principal shall direct; and to that University I wish prosperity to the end of time.”
The General, in a codicil to his will, afterwards bequeathed a third portrait of himself to the University, taken after he had attained the high rank of General in the army. Whether the University has yet come into possession of this noble benefaction I have not learned, but was given to understand, about four years ago, that Mrs Robertson was then alive.
The University possesses a very valuable and rapidly increasing Museum of Natural History, which is under the superintendence of that eminent Philosopher and Naturalist, Professor Jameson. It has also one of the largest and most valuable collections of Anatomical preparations in Europe ; for which it is indebted to the great skill and indefatigable industry of the present and late Professors of Anatomy, the three Doctors Monro. Connected with the University are several Literary and Philosophical Societies, as the Royal Medical and Royal Physical Societies, established by royal Charter: the members of these institutions are chiefly the students of medicine, who meet weekly during the winter and spring, to discuss Medical and Philosophical subjects ; each has a handsome building for its use, containing a hall for the meetings, a well-furnished library, and some philosophical apparatus. The Speculative Society is chiefly composed of gentlemen studying the law; and the Wernerian Natural History Society, established for the promotion of that science; the two last meet in the College.
Let it always be remembered, to the honour of Edinburgh, that it was the first University in Europe in which the Philosophy of Sir Isaac Newton was publicly taught. Sir Isaac was indeed Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge ; but the doctrines of his everlasting work, monumentum
aere perennius,” were not at first there duly appreciated *, Dr David Gregory, who was admitted Professor of Mathematics at Edinburgh, October 17th 1683, taught the Newtonian system there very shortly after its publication in 1687. Gregory, in 1691, became Savillian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford; and one of his Edinburgh pupils, John Keill, a native of that city, followed him thither in 1694, and is said to have been the first person who, in England, illustrated the Newtonian Philosophy by experiments exhibited to his pupils +
The word University cannot be classically rendered into Latin by Universitas, for in that sense no Roman ever used it. The only equivalent for University is undoubtedly Academia, which, however, from modern usage, may be translated either University, as of Oxford, Edinburgh, or Paris, or merely Academy, as of Arts or Music; both the French word Académie, and the English Academy, having a very extensive, but certainly inferior signification.
Undoubtedly, the Academy of Athens bore no resemblance to a modern University or Academy of Music, Dancing, or any other art; yet, from the name given to Plato's grove, have the moderns borrowed this comprehensive term, and applied it to the most dissimilar institutions.
In fact, the ancients had no establishments bearing any resemblance to our Universities, for, until the reign of Charlemagne, there had not been any foundation of the sort in Europe. The University of Paris was founded by that Emperor, on the remonstrance or recommendation of Alcuinus. Had the writer in the review not used the term Academy as opposed to University, and as meaning an inferior establishment, why was the word printed in Italics ? Give the Scotch seats of learning an appellation com. mon to Paris and to Oxford, and they will be content; they affect no superiority, but they know their consequence, and proudly claim an equality. Would there have been any sneers cast upon them had they been upon the same establishment as Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin? But they are Presbyterian establishments, under the direct superintendence of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland ;" and, what is equally as galling, they are free; that is the solution, English Dissenters are not allowed the pri. vilege of education at Oxford or Cambridge. Is it too much that the liberality of Scotland has opened her Universities to them?
The University of Edinburgh is a striking example of what may be accomplished by the judicious application of only moderate funds, for the advancement and diffusion of learning, when combined with zeal and discretion. This orphan seminary being nearly deserted by her royal godfather I, was committed almost pennyless to the protection of the Lord Provost and Town Council of the city, whose fostering care during her infancy, and constant protection since she has arrived at her present state of vigorous maturity, she now so liberally repays, by reflecting upon her “ Patrons” the lustre of her name. At the time Robertson presided, Black, Blair, Playfair, Stewart, Cullen, Monro, Duncan, Gregory, Robison, and other ile lustrious men, were Professors. In fine, here has shone such a galaxy of talent, both in literature and in science, that it has not only excited the envy, but commanded the applause of Europe.
I have thus endeavoured to shew that there are no illegitimate Academies” in Scotland. Whether the term has been applied through stupidity or malignity, I shall leave to the writer of the review to determine ; if from the former, he is to be pitied, if from the latter, despised.
Lawson WHALLEY, M.D.F.R.S.E.
Vide Bower's History of the University of Edinburgh. + Vide Bower's History.
* James the First of England promised this University, to which he had given his own name, “ a guid God's bairn's gift;" but, unfortunately, princes have bad me. mories, and promises are more easily forgotten than fulfilled.
SKETCHES OF TIE EARLY HISTORY OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE
CHURCH OF SCOTLAND.
No. III. Before the meeting of the Third people saw the priest, and a service General Assembly, Queen Mary had which they regarded as idolatrous, returned to sway the sceptre of her thus defended by the men who had fathers. She arrived at Leith on the hitherto been their leaders in the 19th or 20th of August 1561. The cause of Reformation, they retired in fog, under favour of which she had silence and grief. But their feelings escaped from the ships which Eliza- were too strong to be suppressed, beth had sent to intercept her, was and they returned in the afternoon to regarded by the Reformers (Calder- repeat their murmurings and threats wood's Large MS., Vol. I., p. 721,) against the toleration of the mass. as a presage of the calamities which The attendants of the Queen, who she would bring upon her country; regarded this service as essential to but notwithstanding their doubts and their comfort and peace of mind, defears, all ranks united in giving a clared, that if it were not allowed, welcome reception to their Princess. they must instantly return to France. The national gravity burst its re- The matter was, next day, submitted straints, and for several successive to the consideration of the council, nights she was serenaded by the ci- and persons of the greatest authoritizens. Their expressions of joy and ty and prudence were instructed to welcome, however, were soon inter- persuade the people that mass might rupted.
be tolerated so long as the Queen's The Sunday after the arrival of popish friends remained in Scotland. the Queen happened to be the fes- In this way the most violent of the tival of St. Bartholomew, and pre- Reformers were pacified, and an Act parations were made for celebrating was passed, which, while it protected mass in the Chapel of Holyroodhouse. the form of religion which Her MaThese preparations were regarded jesty found standing in the realm at with indignation and alarm by the her arrival, prohibited any molestaReformers, who assembled in crowds, tion from being given to her servants and openly declared that they would or retinue.
To this Act, Bishop not suffer the land to be again pol- Lesly ascribes the final overthrow of luted by the idolatrous service of the the Popish cause, since it gave, what mass. The attendants of the offi- was yet wanting, the royal sanction ciating priest were terrified by the to the Protestant religion. It did violent language of the people; and not, however, completely satisfy the it appeared as if Bartholomew's day Reformers at the time, for when it would have been disgraced, before was proclaimed at the cross of Edinits time, by some tumult or blood- burgh, the Earl of Arran entered a shed. But the Lord James, who formal protest against the liberty stood high in the estimation of the which it allowed to the Queen and Reformers, placed himself at the door her domestics ; and Knox, on the of the Chapel, and under the spe- Sunday following, took occasion to cious pretext of allowing no Scots- declare his opinion against tolerating men to be defiled by attending mass, the celebration of the mass. prevented them from any violent in- The feelings of the Reformers terruption of the service. When the upon this subject were still farther service was ended, the priest was excited, when the Queen, in a proconducted from the Chapel to his gress which she made through some apartments by Lord John, the Prior parts of the realm, caused mass to be of Coldingham, and Lord Robert, the celebrated in many of the principal Abbot of Holyroodhouse, who were towns. On her return to Holyroodboth zealous Reformers, and who, as house, it was continued ; and having Knox and Calderwood are careful to been performed with great solemnity remark, had both communicated at and pomp on All-Saint's-Day, the the table of the Lord, according to Reformers urged the necessity of the Protestant form. When the suppressing it. A conference between
some of the leading ministers and tribution of the patrimony of the the principal nobility was held in Church ; but as the ratification of it the house of the Clerk Register. A was still delayed, it was necessary doubt was started, how far it was
that, in the mean time, some provi. competent for subjects to interfere sion should be made for the maintewith the religion of their Sovereign, nance of the ministers.
Accordingly and it was agreed that the opinion of a supplication, in which this was the the Church of Geneva should be re- leading article, was presented ; and quested. Knox expressed his readi
the propriety of the measure was ness to correspond with some of the readily admitted by the Queen and leading members of that church; but Council. But, although the matter the matter was entrusted to Maitland
was in itself obvious and reasonable, of Lethington, who was more an. many difficulties attended the accomxious to have it delayed than decided. plishment of it. After long consul
Things were in this unpleasant tation, the following plan was agreed state when the meeting of the Third and acted on: An account was taken General Assembly approached. The of the value of all ecclesiastical beplace is not specified; but it must nefices. The incumbents, whether have been about the 20th of Decem. Popish or Protestant, were to retain ber 1561, as the supplication to the two-thirds of the revenue. The reQueen and Council was presented maining third was placed at the dison the 22d of that month. At first, posal of the crown, burdened with the nobles who favoured the interest the maintenance of the Protestant of the Queen refused to meet, as they Church. To this arrangement the had formerly done, with the Assem- Popish party gave a reluctant conbly, but remained by themselves in sent, and the steps necessary to its the apartments of the Abbot of Holy- completion were but slowly complied roodhouse. A deputation was sent with. The Reformers, on the other from the Assembly, requesting their hand, were dissatisfied with the legal presence and aid. Mutual recrimi. alienation of so large a proportion of nations between the ministers and
the property of the Church, and feared the nobles ensued. The nobles com that the spirit which could prompt plained that the ministers drew aside this arrangement was capable of curthe country gentlemen, and formed tailing or embezzling the pittance plans without their concurrence or which was allotted for the maintencounsel. The ministers replied, that, ance of their ministers. Nor were of themselves, they had done no their fears without foundation. When thing but what the common good the rentals of the different benefices and order of the Church required. were obtained, the third part was by The nobles questioned the right of no means so productive as might be the General Assembly to meet with anticipated. Many of the incumbents out the Royal authority or permission. seem to have exhibited fraudulent The ministers maintained the use rentals, and in this way to have lesfulness and necessity of free Assem- sened the sums which were due from blies of the Church; and their rea them. The Queen, on the other soning upon this point being admit- hand, granted remission of their ted, the conference seems to have thirds to such as she wished to attach closed, and the deputation, with to her interest. Many very curious some of the nobles, to have repaired particulars relative to this measure to the Assembly.
have been preserved by Keith, in the It was then proposed that the Book Appendix to his History. The sum of Discipline, which already had total of the thirds for the year in been subscribed by many of the no which this arrangement was combility, should be presented to the pleted, amounted to upwards of seQueen for her royal sanction. But venty thousand pounds Scots. But, the measure was ridiculed and de- of this, not much more than twentyfeated by Lethington, between whom four thousand pounds was given to and Knox some unseemly alterca the Protestant Church. Nor were tion ensued.
complaints wanting concerning the The Book of Discipline contained distribution of this small proportion. a plan for the appropriation and dis- By an Act of Council dated at Lin
lithgow, which is overlooked by inserted in his history, (p. 30:3,) was Keith, but inserted by Knox, a list presented to the Queen. It set forth of all the ministers in the land was in strong terms the enormity of the required. The Lord James, the Earls offence, the wrath which it might of Argyle and Morton, with Lethdraw down from God, and the sedie ington, the Justice Clerk, and the tion which it might stir up among Lord Register, were appointed to the people, and required of her Mae modify or assign, and Wisheart of jesty to“ set all affection aside," and Pittarrow to pay the sums which to shew, by the signal punishment of each of the functionaries of the the parties concerned, that the fear Church should receive. The modic of God and the peace of the realm ficators seem to have determined that were uppermost in her heart. When the luxury in which the Popish Cler. this supplication was presented, some gy had indulged should not be with of the nobles who were in the interest in the reach of their successors. Three of the court asked, in a threatening hundred merks, a sum amounting to tone, Who would adhere to it? The sixteen pounds ten shillings Ster. Master of Lindsay, a zealous young ling, was the highest allowance to man, who had been very open and ordinary ministers, and to many not active in his opposition to the toleramore than one hundred merks was tion of the mass, replied, that a thouassigned. Even these pitiful pittan- sand gentlemen now in Edinburgh ces were but ill paid ; and Wisheart were ready to own the supplication. incurred considerable censure for the The more moderate of the court pare harshness with which he exacted, ty, therefore, advised the Queen to and the slowness with which he dis- return, in the meantime, a soft anbursed. It must have been very swer, and that the matter might be grievous to the Reformers to find easily managed when the Assembly themselves treated in this way by the was dissolved, and the Protestant nomen who had been with thein in bility returned to the country. In their first struggles against popery. her reply, she urged, that her uncle, The popular feeling may be discover- as a stranger, might claim some ined in the following saying, which is dulgence ; that his companions were preserved by Knox, (Hist. of Ref., young and inexperienced, but that fol., Edin. 1732, p. 301,) “ The she would take care that such riotous gude Laird of Petarro wes an ernest proceedings should not be repeated. Professour of Christ, but the mekill İn a letter written at the time, Randevill receave the Comtroller, for he dolph mentions, that the parties were and his Collectours ar become greedie sharply reproved by the Queen. Her factours."
reproof, however, did not prevent the During the sitting of this Assem- Earl of Both well and Lord John bly, Edinburgh was the scene of a from saying that they would do again riot, so serious as to call forth the in- what they had done before ; and, in terference of the Church. The Earl attempting to renew their violent of Both well, the Marquis d'Elbeuf, proceedings, a serious conflict very uncle to the Queen, and her natural nearly ensued between their party brother the Lord John, Prior of and the adherents of Arran. In this Coldingham, had gone one night to second outrage, however, the Marthe house of a merchant, who had a quis d'Elbeuf had no part. It is fair daughter-in-law, with whom it somewhat singular that this noblewas alleged the Earl of Arran main- man was appointed to command the tained a criminal intercourse. On expedition which was sent from repeating their visit, they were re- France to aid the late Queen Regent fused admittance, and proceeded to against the Lords of the Congregathe use of violence. The Ministers, tion. It sailed from Dieppe in Deand many of the Protestant nobility, cember 1559, but never reached Scotwere of opinion that such a flagrant land, being dispersed and driven back outrage upon the peace and morals of by a storm. The Marquis, however, the city should not be allowed to pass came over in the gallant train of his without reprehension and punish- royal niece, and seems to have inent. A supplication, which was pro- brought with him the dissipated bably penned by Knox, and which is manners of the French court. "The