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wbom he was mentioned as a min neglected and oppressed by the last ministry, because he had re. fused to co-operate with some of the ir schemes.

Harley was glad of an auxiliary : so well qualified for his service, and readily admitted him to familiarity and his entire confidence.

He was admitted to those mectii ags in which the first hints and original plan of action are supposed to have been formed; and wa is one of the sixteen ministers, or agents of the ministry, who met weekly at each other's houses, and · were united by the name of “ Brother.'*

He continued, however, to conv erse indiscriminately with all the wits, and was yet a friend to Stecle, and contributed to the « l'a tier,” which began in April, 1709.

At this time, and during his conr ection with the Tory ministry, he kept a regular journal of all the most remarkable events, as we I as little anecdotes, which he transmitted every fortnight to Siella, the name by which he caller 1 Miss Johnson, for private perufal, and that of Mrs. Dingley. This journal was luckily preserved, and some time since given to the world.

He was now immerging into pol itical controversy. The writers on both sides had before this taken the field. On the Whig fide were Addison, Burnet, Steele, Congreve, Rowe, and many others of less note. On the Tory side, ti e chief writers were Bolingbroke, Atterbury, Prior, Freind and King. They had published twelve numbers of a weekly paper, called The Examiner, when Swift declared himself. The whole cond uct of the paper was, from that time, put into his hands. He entered the field alone; he scorned aslistance; and despised numbers. His first paper was published November 2. 1710, No. 13. of Ti ve Examiner; and he continued them without interruption till June 7. 1711, when he dropped it. closing it with No. 44, and then leaving it to be carried on by Mrs. Manley, and other hands.

In 1711, he published a Letter 10 the Oftober Club, “ a set of above a hundred parliament-men of the country, who drank Odober b

er at home, and met every evening at a tavern near the parlia. ment to consult on affairs, and arivi 3 things to extremes against the Whigs; to call the old ministry to account, and get off five or G s heads.” Swift seems to have concurred in opinion with the violent members of his own party; but it was not in his power to quicken the tardiness of Harley, whom he stimulated as much as he ( 'ould, but with little effect. His Letter, however, put an end to the cabals of the October Club.

The next year, he published a proposal for correcting, improving, and ascertaining the English Tongue, in a letter to Harley; i ritten,” says Dr. Johnson, “ without much knowledge of the general nature of language, and w : thout any accurate inquiry into the history of other tongues. The certainty and stability which, 1 contrary to all experience, he thinks attainable, he proposes to fecure by instituting an acadeniy, he decrees of which every man would have been willing, and many would have been proud to di i obey; and which, being renewed by successive elections, would in a short time have differed from i

Cell." The lame year, he published his celebrated political tract, called The Conduct of the Allies. The

fe was to persuade the nation to a peace; and never had any publication more success. It is Taid that eleven thousand were fol 1 in less than a month. To its propagation certainly no agency of power or influence was wanting

It furnished arguments for conversation, speeches for debate, and materials for parliamentary ret slutions.

It was followed by his Barrier 1 'reaty, which carries on the design of the Conduct of the Allies, and his Remarks on tbe Bishop of Sarum': - Introduētion to the third Volume of bis Hifory of the Reformation, in which he treats Burnet like a political antagonist, whom he is glad of an opportunity to insult.

The ministry were not unmin dful of his merits, and had recommended him to the Queen to fill a vacant bishoprie; but the reca.n mendation was opposed by Archbishop Sharp, who used this remarkable expression, “ that her Majesty should be sure that the man whom she was going to make a bishop was a Christian." The Duchess of Somerset also showed the Queen that excessive bitter copy of verses which Swist had written against her, called The Windfor Propbecy. As a mark of her displeasure, the Queen passed Swift by, and bestowed the bishopric on another.

As foon as it was known that he was in disgrace with the Queen, his court friends either deserted him or looked coldly on him. Speeches were made against him in both Houses of Parliament. The Scottish Peers went in a body to the Queen to complain of the author of a pamphlet, called the

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Palle Spirit of the W big', written in answer to Steele's “ Crisis,” in which were many passages in-
jurious to the honour of their nation.

His friend Harley, however, and the rest of the ministry, excrted their influence so ftrongly in
his behalf, that he soon appeared again at court, in higher favour than ever,

la April 1713, he was appointed Dean of St. Patrick's in Dublin, the best preferment the ministry
would venture to give him. “ That ministry," says Dr. Johnson, “ was, in a great degree, fup-
ported by the clergy, who were not yet reconciled to the author of the Tale of a Tub, and would
not, without much discontent and indignation, have borne to see him installed in an English ca-
thedral."

In June following, he went to take possession of his deanery; but was not suffered to stay in Ire-
land more than a fortnight before he was recalled to England, that he might reconcile Harley and
Bolingbroke, who began to look on one another with malevolence, which every day increased.

Upon his arrival, he contrived an interview at Lord Mafam’s, from which they both departed
diícoutented; he procured a fecond, which only convinced him that the breach was irreconcilable.
He told them his opinion, that all was lost, and that he was determined to have no further concern
with public affairs.

By the difíension of his great friends, his importance was now at an end; and seeing his services at
last useless, he returned in June 1714, to a friend's house at Letcomb in Berkshire, where he wrote
that spirited pamphlet, called Free Thoughts on tbe present State of Affairs; but the death of the Queen,
soon after it went to press, put a stop to the publication.

This event broke down at once the whole system of Tory politics, put an end to all Swift's noble
delgas for the public good, and cut off all his own future prospects.

There is an admirable picture given of him upon this occasion, by a few strokes of the masterly
pen of Arbuthnot: “ I have seen a letter,” he writes Pope, “ from Dean Swift ; he keeps up his
noble spirit ; and though, like a man knocked down, you may behold him still with a stern counte-
nance, and aiming a blow at his adversaries.”

The brightest and most important part of his life passed during the four last years of Queen Anne,
when his faculties were in full vigour, and occasions for displaying them arose adequate to their
greatnesso

ke is recorded to his honour, and to animate others by his example, that, during his connection
with those who were in the highest rank, and who in every rank would have been great, he would
never suffer himself to be treated but as an equal, and repulsed every attempt to hold him in de-
pendence, or keep him at distance, with the utmost resentment and indignation.

It happened upon some occasion that Harley sent him a bank bill of gol. by his private secretary,
Mr. Lewis

, which he instantly returned with a letter of expoftulation and complaint; but he ac-
cepted afterwards a draught of 1000 l. upon the Exchequer, which was intercepted by the Queen's

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death.

When he was de fired by Harley to introduce Parnell to his acquaintance, he refused, upon this
principle, that a man of genius was a character superior to a lord in a high station. He therefore
obliged him to walk with his treasurer's faff from room to room, inquiring which was Parnell, in
order to introduce himself, and beg the honour of his acquaintance.

As to his political principles, is his own account of them is to be believed, he was always against
a popith fucceffor to the crown, whatever title he might have by proximity of blood; nor did he re-
gard the right line upon any other account than as it was eitablished by law, and had much weight
in the opinions of the people. He was of opinion, that when the grievances suffered un jer a present
government became greater than those which might probably be expected from changing it by
violence, a revolution was justifiable; and this he believed to have been the case in that which was
brought about by the Prince of Orange. He had a mortal antipathy to handing armies in times
of peace; and was of opinion, that our liberty could never be secured upon a firm foundation, till
the ancient law should be revived, by which our parliaments were made annual. He abominated
the political scheme of setting is a monied interest in opposition to the landed, and was an enemy
to a temporary fuspension of the Hebeas Corpus 2. In these opinions, and in his general scheme of
politica, Harley was known to concur; but Bolingbroke fought to gratify his ambition by fecretly
promoting the restoration of the exiled family.

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whom he was mentioned as a min neglected and oppreffed by the last ministry, because he had re. fused to co-operate with fome of the ir schemes.

Harley was glad of an auxiliary : so well qualified for his service, and readily admitted him to familiarity and his entire confidencr.

He was admitted to those mectii ags in which the first hints and original plan of action are supposed to have been formed; and wa is one of the sixteen ministers, or agents of the ministry, who met weekly at each other's houses, and were united by the name of “ Brother.'t

He continued, however, to conv erse indiscriminately with all the wits, and was yet a friend to Stecle, and contributed to the « Ta tler,” which began in April, 1709.

At this time, and during his conr ection with the Tory ministry, he kept a regular journal of all the moít remarkable events, as we 1 as little anecdotes, which he transmitted every fortnight to Stella, the name by which he caller i Miss Johnson, for private perusal, and that of Mrs. Dingley. This journal was luckily preserved, and some time fince given to the world.

He was now immerging into pol itical controversy. The writers on both sides had before this taken the field. On the Whig frde were Addison, Burnet, Stcele, Congreve, Rowe, and many others of less note.

On the Tory side, th e chief writers were Bolingbroke, Atterbury, Prior, Freind and King. They had published twelve numbers of a weekly paper, cailed The Examiner, when Swift declared himself. The whole cond ud of the paper was, from that time, put into his hands. He entered the field alone; he scorned assistance; and despised numbers. His first paper was published November 2. 1710, No. 13. of Ti ve Examiner; and he continued them without interruption till June 7. 1711, when he dropped it: closing it with No. 44, and then leaving it to be carried on by Mrs. Manley, and other hands.

In 1711, he published a Letter to be October Club, “ a set of above a hundred parliament-men of the country, who drank October b er at home, and met every evening at a tavern near the parliament to confult on affairs, and drivi : things to extremes against the Whigs; to call the old ministry to account, and get off five or G <heads.” Swift seems to have concurred in opinion with the violent members of his own party; but it was not in his power to quicken the tardiness of Harley, whom he stimulated as much as he could, but with little effect. His Letter, however, put an end to the cabals of the 0.7ober Club.

The next year, he published a proposal for correcting, improving, and ascertaining the English 'Tongue, in a letter to Harley; " ritten,” says Dr. Johnson, “ without much knowledge of the general nature of language, and w · thout any accurate inquiry into the history of other tongues. The certainty and stability which, i contrary to all experience, he thinks attainable, he proposes to secure by instituting an academy, i he decrees of which every man would have been willing, and many would have been proud to di i obey; and which, being renewed by successive elections, would in a short time have differed from i felf.”

The same year, hc published his celebrated political tract, called Tbe Conduct of the Allies. The

ne vas te persuade the nation to a peace; and never had any publication more success. It is purp faid that eleven thousand were fch 1 in less than a month. To its propagation certainly no agency of power or influence was wanting

It furnished arguments for conversation, speeches for debate, and materials for parliamentary ref plutions.

It was followed by his B.urrier 1 'reaty, which carries on the design of the Conduct of the Allies, and his Remarks on the Difbop of Sarum': - Introduction to the third Volume of bis Hifory of the Reformation, in which he treats Burnet like a political antagonis, whom he is glad of an opportunity to infult.

The ministry were not unii dful of his merits, and had recommended him to the Queen to fill a vacant bishopric; but the recal.n mendation was opposed by Archbishop Sharp, who used this remarkable expreslion, “ that her Majesty should be sure that the man whom she was going to make a bishop was a Christian." The Duchess of Somerset also thowed the Queen that exceflive bitter copy of verses which Swist had written against her, called The Windsor Propbecy. As a mark of her displeasure, the Queen passed Swift by, and bestowed the bishopric on another.

As foon as it was known that he was in disgrace with the Queen, his court friends either deserted him or looked coldly on him. Speeches were made against him in both Houses of Parliament. The Scottish Peers went in a body to the Queen to complain of the author of a pamphlet, called the

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Pullie Spirit of the Wbig, written in answer to Steele's “ Crisis,” in which were many pafsages in. jurious to the honour of their nation.

His friend Harley, however, and the rest of the ministry, excrted their influence so Itrongly in his behalf, that he soon appeared again at court, in higher favour than ever.

In April 1713, he was appointed Dean of St. Patrick's in Dublin, the best preferment the ministry would venture to give him. “ That ministry,” says Dr. Johnson, “ was, in a great degree, supported by the ciergy, who were not yet reconciled to the author of the Tale of a Tub, and would not, without much discontent and indignation, have borne to see him installed in an English cathedral."

In June following, he went to take possession of his deanery; but was not suffered to stay in Ireland more than a fortnight before he was recalled to England, that he might reconcile Harley and Bolingbroke, who began to look on one another with malevolence, which every day increased.

Upon his arrival, he contrived an interview at Lord Masham's, from which they both departed discontented; he procured a second, which only convinced him that the breach was irreconcilable. He told them his opinion, that all was lost, and that he was determined to have no further concern with public affairs.

By the dissension of his great friends, his importance was now at an end; and seeing his services at last useless, he returned in June 1714, to a friend's house at Letcomb in Berkshire, where he wrote that spirited pamphlet, called Free Thoughts on tbe present State of jairs; but the death of the Queen, foon after it went to press, put a stop to the publication.

This event broke down at once the whole system of Tory politics, put an end to all Swift's noble designs for the public good, and cut off all his own future prospects.

There is an admirable picture given of him upon this occafion, by a few strokes of the masterly pen of Arbuthnot: “ I have seen a letter," he writes Pope, “ from Dean Swift ; he keeps up his Roble spirit; and though, like a man knocked down, you may behold him still with a stern countehance, and aiming a blow at his adversaries.”

The brightest and most important part of his life passed during the four last years of Queen Anne, when his faculties were in full vigour, and occasions for displaying them arose adequate to their greatness

It is recorded to his honour, and to animate others by his example, that, during his connection with those who were in the highest rank, and who in every rank would have been great, he would never fuffer himself to be treated but as an eqnal, and repulsed every attempt to hold him in dependence, or keep him at distance, with the utmost resentment and indignation.

It happened upon some occasion that Harley sent him a bank bill of sol. by his private secretary, Mr. Lewis, which he instantly returned with a letter of expoftulation and complaint; but he accepted afterwards a draught of 1000 1. upon the Exchequer, which was intercepted by the Queen's death.

When he was de fired by Harley to introduce Parnell to his acquaintance, he refused, upon this principle, that a man of genius was a character superior to a lord in a high station. He therefore obliged him to walk with his treasurer's saft from room to room, inquiring which was Parnell, in order to introduce himfelf, and beg the honour of his acquaintance.

As to his political principles, is his own account of them is to be believed, he was always against a popish fucceffor to the crown, whatever title he might have by proximity of blood; nor did he regard the right line upon any other account than as it was established by law, and had much weight is the opinions of the people. He was of opinion, that when the grievances suffered un ier a present government became greater than those which might probably be expected from changing it by violence, a revolution was juftifiable ; and this he believed to have been the case in that which was brought about by the Prince of Orange. He had a mortal antipathy to handing armies in times of

peace; and was of opinion, that our liberty could never be secured upon a firm foundation, till the ancient law should be revived, by which our parliaments were made annual. He abominated the political scheme of setting " a monied interest in opposition to the landed, and was an enemy to a temporary fufpenfion of tile Habeas Corpus 20 In these opinions, and in his general scheme of polítics, Harley was known to coacar; but Bolingbroke fought to gratify his ambition by secretly Promoting the restoration of the exiled family,

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The period of his political importance is distinguished by the commencement of his pallion for Miss Erher Vanhomrigh, celebrated by the name of Vaneju, whose history is too well known to be minutely repcated.

The date of it may be traced to March 1712, when a remarkable change took place in his manner of writing to Miss Johnson.

Miss Vanhomrigh was a young woman fond of literature, whom he took pleasure in directing and instructing; till, from being proud of his praise, she grew fond of his person, and ventured to make him a proposal of marriage.

He now, for the first time, felt what the passion of love was, with all its attendant symptoms, which he had before only known from description, and which he was now enabled to describe himself in the strongest colours. In this situation, soon after his return from his installation, in 1713, he wrote that bcautiful poem, called Cadenus and Vanema,, in which he is characterised, under the name of Cadenus by the transpositicn of the letters in the word Decanus, the Dean. His first design seems to have been to break of the connection in the politti manner possible. To soften the harshness of a refusal of her hand, the greatest of mortifications to a woman, young, beautiful, and porfested of a good fortune; he painted all her perfections, both of body and mind, in such glowing colours, as muít at least have highly gratified her vanity, and shown that he was far from being insensible to her charms, though prudence forbade his yielding to his inclinations. If it be said that he should have checked a passion which he never meant to gratify, recourse must be had to that extenuation which he so much despised, “ men are but men.” Perhaps, however, he did not know his own mind; and, as he represents himself, was undetermined.

A poem written in such exquisite taste, of which she was the fubje&, and where she saw herself dreft out in the most flattering colours, was not likely to administer to her cure; on the contrary, it only served to add frush fuel to the frame.

Meantime, the unfortunate Stella languished in absence and neglect. The journal was not renewed; while a continual intercourse was kept up between Vanz and him. She was the first perfon he wrote to on his retirement to Letcoumb, before the Queen's death, and the lait in his departure from that place to Ireland; whether the foon followed.

He arrived in a much more gloomy fate of mind than before. In the triumph of the Whigs, he met with every mortification that a spirit like his could posibly be exposed to. The people of Ireland were irritated against him beyond measure, and every indignity was offered hiin as he walked the streets of Dublin. Nor was he only insulted by the rabble; but persons of distinguished rank forgot the decorum of common civility, to give him a personal affront. While his pride was hurt by such indignities, his more tender feelings were often wounded by base ingratitude.

In such a situation, he found it in vain to fruggle against the tide that opposed him. He filently yielded, and retired from the world to discharge his duties as a clergyman, and attend to the are of his deanery.

He filled his hours with sonie historical attempts relating to the Change of the Miniftry, and the Conc'? of the Pri nifing. He likewise finifhed a Hiftory of the four lu,? Years of Queen Arne, which he began in her lifetime, and laboured with great atiention, but never published. It was afterwards published by Dr. Lucas; but failed to satisfy the curiosity which it excited.

He was now to contrive how he might be best accommodated in a country where he considered himself in a state of exile. He opened his house by a sublie table tuo days a-week, and found his entertainments gradually frequented by visitants of learning among the men, and of elegance among the women. Mifs Johnson had left the country, and lived in lodgings not far from the deanery. On his public days the regulated the table; but appeared at it as a mere guest, like other ladies.

On other days, he often dired at a stated price, with Mr. Worral, a clergyman of his cathedral, whole house was recommended by the peculiar neatness and pleasantry of his wife. To this frugal moje of living, he was first disposed by care to pay fome debts which he had contracted; and he continued it for the purpose of accuntulating money. .

In 1716, he was privately married to Miss Johnson, by Dr. Abe, bishop of Clogher, to whom he had been a pupil in the College, and who was the common friend to both, in settling the conditions of this extraordinary urrion. The marriage made no change in their mode of life; they lived in separate houses as ketvie; nor did she ever lodge in the dcanery but when Swift was seized with

giddiners.

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