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rigid that many would call them ascetic and needless severity, that his frail body endured so long. *

Few men have more fully established their claims to intellectual superiority of a very high grade, than President Edwards. But it was temperance alone that could carry him through such powerful mental efforts. “ Though constitutionally tender, by the rules of temperance, he enjoyed good health, and was enabled to pursue his studies thirteen hours a day.” + “By a sparingness in diet," says he, in his diary, “and eating (as much as may be) what is light and easy of digestion, I shall doubtless be able to think clearer, and shall gain time, first by lengthening out my life: secondly, shall need less time for digestion after meals: thirdly, shall be able to study closer, without wrong to my health : fourthly, shall need less time to sleep: fifthly, shall seldomer be troubled with the headache."

In like manner, by temperance, and fasting (sometimes not less than thirty-six hours,) did the powerful mind of John Calvin continue its operations in spite of a frail bodily organization, long enough to impress his character and name upon the theology of subsequent ages. I

The same means enabled Martin Luther, though his days were stormy in the extreme, to make the moral world bend at his will, and to leave for posterity so many profound literary productions. " It often happened," says his biographer," that for several days and nights he locked himself up in his study and took no other nourishment than bread and water, that he might the more uninterruptedly pursue his labors."

The records of English jurisprudence contain scarcely a name more distinguished than that of Sir Matthew Hale. And it is the testimony of history, that "his decided piety and rigid temperance laid him open to the attacks of ridicule ; but he could not be moved." " In eating and drinking, he observed not only great plainness and moderation, but lived so philosophically, that he always ended his meal with an appetite ; so that he lɔst little time at it: and was disposed to any exercise of the mind, to which he thought fit to apply himself, immediately after he had dined."!

Perhaps no man accomplishes more for the worid than he who wsites such a commentary on the Scriptures as that of Matthew Henry: And it is, indeed, an immense literary iabor. But the biographer's account of that writer's habits shows that temperance and diligence were the secret of his success. " He was an early riser; for he would be in his study by four or five o'clock, and continue there till Piety Exeraplified, &c. p. 531.

Same work, p. 591. * Samo work, p. 174.

|| Same work, p. 617.

eight; then, after attending family prayer, and receiving a slight refreshment, he went up again till noon : after dinner he resumed his book or pen till four o'clock, and in the evening visited his friends."**

Another laborious and able commentator and scholar was Dr. Macknight. And his biographer testifies that “his uninterrupted enjoyment of health he owed, under Providence, to a naturally robust make, and a constitution of body uncommonly sound and vigorous; along with regular habits of temperance and of taking exercise, which he did by walking nearly three hours every day.” |

The great diligence of Dr. Doddridge, as well as the great amount of his literary labors, although he had to husband a delicate constitution, are too well known to require detail. And his regularity and temperance in living corresponded to such a constitution and to such labors.

Few men have accomplished more than John Wesley. And it is gratifying to learn that it was “extraordinary temperance” which gave him the power to do so much and to live so long. I

Who is not amazed that Richard Baxter, with a body apparently tottering continually over the grave, and living in the midst of fierce commotions in church and state, could have written so much and so well! But we ought not, perhaps, to wonder, when we are told by his biographer that “his personal abstinence, severities and labors were exceeding great. He kept his body under, and always feared pampering his flesh too much."||

In reading the works of Milton, we are not so much delighted with the play of imagination, as with the rich and profound, though sometimes exceedingly anomalous views, which he opens before us. The fact is, he was a man of powers and attainments so great as justly to be classed among the leading intellects of his generation. Nor were such powers and attainments disjoined from temperance. It is testified of him, that while engaged in the instruction of youth, " he set the example of hard study and spare diet to his pupils, whom he seems to have disciplined with the severity of old times."S

Among the scientific men of modern days, who have risen high and accomplished much, is our countryman Count Rumford. And among his most prominent traits of character were temperance and a love of order. "His wants, his pleasures, and his labors," says Baron Cuvier, "were calculated like his experiments. He drank nothing but water-he permitted in himself nothing superfluous."

* Piety Exemplified, p. 498. | Piety Exemplified, p. 680.

Aikin's General Biography,

† Macknight's Commentary on the Epistles, p. 7. il Orme's Life of Baxter, Vol. 1. p. 359.

Whatever may be thought of his phrenological speculations, no one can doubt but it required powers of the first order and efforts of the most vigorous kind, to establish in so many countries, in spite of prejudice and ridicule, a system so much at variance wi:h received opinions as that of Dr. Spurzheim, and to write so much and so ably in its defence. Nor could he have done it, had not his "temperance and abstemiousness," in the language of his biographer, "been very remarkable.” “We have seen him sitting down to sumptuous meals provided in honor of him, and have seen him fasting for the want of food adapted to his simple taste." “At evening, a tumbler of milk and a cracker, or a piece of the simplest cake, satisfied the demands of his athletic and commanding frame, and left his fine intellect without a cloud."*

Europe as well as America has been filled with the fame of Frank. lin: and no less wide spread is the history of his temperance. Early in life he adopted a vegetable diet; and thus he not only gained time for study, but " I made the greater progress," says he, "from that greater clearness of head and quickness of apprehension which generally attend temperance in eating and drinking.”+ And “though he afterwards relaxed in the austerity of his diet, the habit of being contented with a little, and disregarding the gratifications of the palate remained with him through life, and was highly useful on various occasions."

I must not omit the shining example of John Howard. Says Dr. Aikin, "The bare recital of what Mr. Howard did in the cause of humanity, is sufficient to place him among the greatest benefactors of mankind, as well as the most extraordinary private characters recorded in biography. Accustomed to the most rigorous temperance, so as to discard from his diet animal food and fermented liquors, he found no difficulty in living in the poorest countries. In all other respects his mind was equally master of his body, and he incurred hardships of every kind without repugnance. Economical in private expenses, he knew no bounds in his expenditures on objects of public utility, and regarded money only as an instrument of beneficence."

How easy would it be to protract to a volume this history of eminent men who have been most decidedly temperate! But I forbear. I shall, however, be met with the case of Dr. Samuel Johnson, as a triumphant proof that strong mental powers and great efforts may be connected with great excess in eating and drinking. Let it be recollected that the most laborious and successful of this man's literary * Amer. Journal of Science, Vol. 23, p. 369. Library of Ent. Knowledge, Vol. 3, p. 224. | Aikin's General Biography.

labors, were performed before he had acquired the means of intempe. rance; while yet stern poverty and obscurity imposed upon him a necessity of being abstemious. Let it be remembered, also, that afterwards he found it necessary to be temperate and even abstinent periodically; and here lay the secret of his mental strength.* “ By abstinence from wine and suppers,” says he, in his Prayers and Meditations, "I obtained sudden and great relief; and had freedom of mind restored to me, which I have wanted for all this year, without being able to find any means of obtaining it."'t Nor should it be forgotten how dreadful were the sufferings of this powerful mind in consequence of intemperance : how it rendered him gross in his manners, excessively irritable and overbearing in his temper, and how it kept him, through fear of death, all his life-time subject to bondage.

The influence of intemperance upon the character and happiness of other men of literary distinction, in modern times, were there room here to exhibit it, would serve to impress the reader more deeply with the importance of temperance; especially to men whose labors are chiefly intellectual. What dreadful havoc did excess in eating and drinking make upon Pope, and Byron, and Burns, and Dryden, and many other authors of distinction, alas! who might be named! Who would desire their fame, if he must possess their unlovely characters, and endure their dreadful sufferings ! Had they been temperate, how happy might they have been in life, and how much higher might they have enrolled their names on the scale of genius and learning! To them life seemed to be for the most part only a curse, and death only a fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indig. nation.

4. Temperance is eminently promotive of cheerful, healthful piety.

An unruffled and serene state of mind is one of the most common, as well as most happy results, of temperance; as an opposite state of mind almost infallibly attends intemperate habits. The genuine calmness and self-possession of philosophy can never be enjoyed, except by him who refrains from unnatural stimulants of every kind, in food as well as drink. Nor can the pious man, who indulges his appetite beyond the demands of unsophisticated nature, escape those morbid and irregular actions of mind, which pow lift the feelings into the region of enthusiasm, and now sink them into the abyss of despondency. So irregular, indeed, will be the emotions of such a man, that he can never judge correctly of their nature, nor determine whether they result from the excitement of the animal constitution, or from the opera. * Madden's Infirmities of Genius, Vol. 1, p. 178. Journal of Honlth, Vol. 8, p. 208.

tions of grace and truth. Hope, therefore, will be feeble and unsteady, and his whole religious character will partake of the morbid irregu. larity of the physical powers, and want that healthful vigor and steady consistency, which give to Christian example its greatest force. If that healthiness and vigor of piety are not exhibited by the tempe. rate Christian, it will in almost every case be his own fault-an unnecessary and self-inflicted calamity.

Another effect of thorough temperance is to banish, or at least counteract in a great measure, a tendency to gloom and dejection of spirits." The great majority of those complaints which are considered as purely mental,” says a distinguished physician, "such as irascibility; melancholy, timidity and irresolution, might be greatly remedied, if not entirely removed, by a proper system of temperance, and with very little medicine." Now it is this melancholy, timidity, and irresolution, that render the piety of multitudes of professing Christians gloomy, unlovely, and repulsive. And in nine cases out of ten, their despondency would be changed into holy joy, and their sluggishness into untiring aetivity, were they to come up to the true standard of temperance in their dietetic habits. The most devoted piety, (if, indeed, it can exist along with excess in food,) can never expect this joy, nor practice this activity, until it be conjoined with thorough temperance. But it is incredible what a mountain it takes off from the soul to withhold from the stomach a few ounces of im. proper or unnecessary food. He who has made the trial, will feel how necessary and important is the caution of Christ; Take heed lest at any time your hearts be overcharged (borne down) with surfeiting. The heart does, indeed, feel the pressure of excess in food more sensibly than the body: and it was not merely owing to his exalted piety, but in part because he kept under his body and brought it into subjection, that the heart of Paul was always so buoyant under the heaviest trials, and his hands so busy and strong in accomplishing his gigan. tic work. And it was the most thorough experience that led him to lay down the general principle, that every man, that striveth for the mastery, is temperate in all things.

Says one, nearly an hundred years old, who had been eminent for tem perance, " Whereas many embrace a holy and contemplative life, teaching and preaching the great truths of religion—which is highly commendable-0 that they would likewise betake themselves wholly to a regular and temperate life! They would then be considered as saints indeed upon earth, as those primitive Christians were, who observed so constant a temperance and lived so long :-And they would besides enjoy constant health and spirits, and be always happy within

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