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Parry's return to England.


crossed the island to its northern shore; the snow had not entirely disappeared even then, but there were broad tracts of verdure, on which great numbers of deer were feeding, and the pools were alive with birds of the wading and swimming species.

It was not until the 2nd of August, however, that the ice broke up, and Parry was enabled to resume his explorations. The icy barrier which had arrested his progress in the preceding autumn was reached on the 4th, and found to be still compact and impenetrable. He lingered before it till the 15th, when some of the officers ascended the hills on Melville Island, and gazed anxiously westward. The island terminated in that direction in a headland, to which the name of Cape Dundas was given ; and in the distance, across an intervening space of ice, was a high, bold coast, which received the name of Bank's Land. Open water was nowhere to be seen, and as even a strong easterly gale did not effect any change in the ice, Parry came to the conclusion that it was backed everywhere by the land. He resolved, therefore, to return; and, sailing through Barrow Strait and Lancaster Sound, surveyed a portion of the shores of Baffin Bay, and reached England in November, with all on board in good health, only one death having occurred during their eighteen months' absence from their native country.

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IMULTANEOUSLY with the discoveries made by Parry

during his search for the north-west passage, the shores of the Polar Ocean were explored by the enterprising and ill-fated Franklin. A vessel sailing from the Thames for Fort York, one of the stations of the Hudson Bay Company, in May, 1819, afforded

an opportunity for the sending out of an expedition for the exploration of the northern coast of America. Contrary winds rendered the voyage to Davis Strait a slow one, and the further progress of the vessel was greatly impeded by thick fogs and floating ice. Resolution Island was dimly seen on the 7th of August, but eight days elapsed before the vessel had fairly entered Hudson Strait, during which she thrice struck upon rocks off that rugged and precipitous coast, owing to the fog, and on the third occasion sprang a leak. Cape Digges was passed on the 19th, and then they crossed Hudson Bay with a fair wind, and reached Fort York on the 30th.

Sir John Franklin started on his overland expedition on the 9th of September, accompanied by a surgeon named Richardson, two midshipmen named Back and Hood, and a sailor named Hepburn. With their journey south-westward to Fort Cum

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Franklin on the Copper-mine River.


berland, and thence north-westward to Fort Chipewyan, and from that station northward to Fort Enterprise, we are not concerned. They were joined at Fort Chipewyan by sixteen Canadian trappers and interpreters, and started in July, 1820, for Fort Enterprise, on the shores of Winter Lake, more than five hundred miles distant. Then, after walking eighty miles to examine the upper waters of the Copper-mine River, they wintered, while Back returned on foot to Fort Chipewyan, to expedite the transport of stores for the next year's operations. This journey occupied five months, during which Back walked eleven hundred miles in snow shoes, in the depth of winter, with the thermometer seldom above freezing point, and at one time fifty-seven degrees below it.

On the 14th of June, 1821, the party left Fort Enterprise, dragging their canoes and baggage to the banks of the Coppermine, which were reached on the 30th. Embarking on the rapid current, they reached the sea on the 20th of July, and on the following day began to sail along the coast to the eastward. The sea was almost free from ice, only one small berg being visible, but there was a bright" blink" northward. Passing a group of rocky and barren islands, with high columnar cliffs, they disembarked in the evening thirty-seven miles from the mouth of the river, and pitched their tents amidst abundant vegetation. Next morning the voyage was resumed, and towards evening several masses of ice were met. They encamped on a rocky point, beyond which the coast was sterile; but some deer and many birds were seen, and on the 23rd a deer was shot, and furnished a welcome supply of fresh meat. The headland named Cape Barrow was passed on the 25th, and there they were placed in some jeopardy by loose ice, which on the following day became so close as to obstruct their progress.

They were now in a bay, surrounded by steep, craggy hills of

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