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Die socialdemokratischen Gewerkschaften in Deutschland seit dem

Erlasse des Socialisten-Gesetzes. Von Dr. phil. Josep Schmöle, Privatdozent an der Universität Greifswald. Erster, vorbereitender Theil. Jena, 1896—8vo, xviii, 212 pp.

Labor organizations in Germany have had a peculiar history. They have developed on lines quite their own, and are different in many respects from the English unions on the one hand, and from the French syndicats on the other. An effort was made by Dr. Hirsch in 1868 to introduce unions after the model of those which he had studied in England, and a considerable number of such organizations were formed, many of which continue to exist at the present time. Side by side with these we find an entirely different class of unions, which are known by the name gewerkschaften, and which are affiliated with the social democratic party. Dr. Schmöle's work, of which the first volume is before us, does not purport to deal with labor organizations in general; it only deals with those of the second class above described. Nor does it purport to deal with the entire history even of these associations, but only the history since the passage of the anti-socialist law of 1878. Considerable space, however, is given, by way of introduction, to the history of these associations from 1868 to 1878, and some allusion is also made to the unions based on the English model, inaugurated under the auspices of Dr. Hirsch and known as gewerkvereine.

The socialist unions are undoubtedly the more interesting of the two classes. They came into being more spontaneously and have shown a greater vitality. The anti-socialist law which was passed in consequence of the two attacks made upon the life of the Emperor in 1878, provided for a severe repression of all associations and newspapers which were of a socialist character, and for a few years after its passage almost all of the socialist unions went out of existence. This state of things might have been expected to be favorable to the more conservative unions, but that was not found to be the case. They derived little advantage from the suppression of their rivals. But as early as 1880 a few sporadic associations began to appear under various disguises, and little by little the vigilance of the authorities was evaded. A loose organization was adopted to which the terms of the anti-socialist law did not exactly apply, and before long a vast network of unions, all sympathizing with socialism, spread itself over Germany. The volume before us does not take up the discussion of the present character and form

of these unions. It gives us, however, in great detail the steps which led to their formation, and a special chapter is devoted to the jurisprudence of the subject. It is evident from the amplitude of the treatment which the author has adopted, that the book is intended for specialists rather than for the general reader, and for such it Furnishes a valuable guide to the complicated political and social movements which in Germany have influenced the organization of workingmen.

H. W. F.

A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina. By David

Franklin Houston, A.M., Adjunct Professor of Political Science in the University of Texas. New York, Longmans, Green and Co., 1896—Harvard Historical Series III.—8vo, x, 169 pp.

Professor Houston's careful review of South Carolina Nullification brings out into strong light several important facts which have not been so clearly grasped and expounded by previous students. He shows that South Carolina at first took the broad construction view of the Constitution, that it was economic decay and depression which made her embrace nullification, that this remedy came from a misconception of the causes of her economic decline, which was owing primarily to the exhaustion of the soil through slave culture and not to national legislation in the form of tariffs, and that in advocating this remedy Calhoun was not a pioneer, nor exactly a leader, but was forced into the position he took by the peremptory public sentiment of the State. His change of ground thus offers an instructive parallel to that of Webster on the tariff. Each sacrificed earlier convictions, yielding to the pressure of local interests.

Professor Houston's essay is an admirably clear piece of exposition. In the bibliography there is no mention of Mr. Gaillard Hunt's valuable paper on Nullification in South Carolina, published in the Political Science Quarterly, VI, 232. Of the contemporary discussions the author has failed to notice Lewis Cruger's "Hampden's Genuine Book of Nullification,” Charleston, 1831. This is to be regretted, as the essay had no little influence at the time and is now very rare. There is, however, a copy in the Boston Athenæum Library.

E. G. B.

Dictionary of Political Economy, edited by R. H. Inglis Palgrave,

F.R.S., vol. II, F-M. London, Macmillan & Co., 1896, xvi,

848 pp.

Even the most conscientious reviewer is not expected to read an Economic Dictionary from cover to cover before commenting on

its merits; and were he to do so he would not be much better fitted for his task. Economic science is now so vast that no one man can longer be said to have mastered all its parts. Every student is therefore compelled to approach the encyclopedic work of Palgrave and his collaborators from some particular side and with his own peculiar bias. He cannot form an expert opinion on all, or even most, of its contents. The specialist who can pronounce on the article "International Law” would scarcely venture an opinion on "Graphic Method.” The student of the “Hanseatic League” is not prepared to criticize "Life Insurance.” The chief merit, in fact, of the work before us is that it contains so much more than any one man knows. It is a guide and directory to every conceivable department or aspect of Economics and the contiguous branches of knowledge. The best guarantee of its general reliability is the editor's well-known impartiality and fairmindedness. He has chosen with signal success the large body of specialists who have aided him. We note the names of Ashley, Bastable, Bonar, Bauer, Cannan, J. B. Clark, Dunbar, Edgeworth, Ely, De Foville, Gide, Giddings, Hadley, Ingram, Loria, MayoSmith, Nicholson, Pantaleoni, Rae, Rabbeno, Sidgwick, Smart, Taussig, Walker, and many others of equal eminence. Of the other writers,—for there are some 170 in all-many are young specialists whose names are not famous, except within their respective departments. It is to be regretted that the signatures are given only in initials, necessitating a constant reference to the index of names.

Devotees of all schools and methods are represented, for the object of the dictionary is not to inculcate doctrine, but to exhibit the state of opinion as it actually exists, in all its inconsistency and contradiction. In this respect the work differs radically from the unfinished dictionary of MacLeod or the Nouveau Dictionnaire of Léon Say and Chailley-Bert. Mr. Palgrave has sought to give impartially conflicting arguments and all leading facts and information on each topic as well as bibliographies to aid the reader in pursuing the subject further. The book is not a collection of treatises, each complete and dogmatic, but a dictionary to current economic thought. The result is that the articles are many and short. Although the dictionary is only two-thirds completed, it already contains about 2700 articles, or nearly twice as many as Conrad's Handwörterbuch and three times as many as the Nouveau Dictionnaire or Lalor's Cyclopedia of Political Science. The average length of Palgrave's articles is 550 words as against 1500 for

the French work, 1800 for MacLeod's, and 2500 for Lalor's and Conrad's. The division of labor, however, is carried the farthest in the German monumental work. With some 260 contributors, the average number of articles per contributor is less than six, while for Lalor's work the corresponding number is seven, and for Palgrave's and Say's eleven each. MacLeod is sole author of the 500 articles constituting his first and only volume.

Palgrave's dictionary is the first to do justice to the growing subject of Mathematical Economics and it is especially complete and instructive in its treatment of the various methods of investigating economic phenomena and the resulting schools and national tendencies of economic thinking. Most scrupulous care has also been taken to give the works and biographical sketches of all writers in the past who made any impression on economic thought. Even the speeches of Garfield find a place among American writings. The editor has, however, very wisely declined to follow the example of the German work in including living writers.

Mr. Palgrave makes the welcome announcement that considerable progress has been made on the third (and presumably the last) volume.

I. F.

Statistisches Jahrbuch Deutscher Städte, herausgegeben von Dr. M.

Neefe, Direktor des Statistischen Amts der Stadt Breslau. Sechster Jahrgang, Breslau, W. G. Korn, 1897—8vo, xii, 388.

In an early number of this magazine the first edition of this valuable handbook of municipal statistics was reviewed. Five editions have since appeared, each adding materially to the scope and usefulness of its predecessor. The number before us is half as large again as the original one; the German cities of over 50,000 inhabitants, which the handbook covers, have increased in number since 1890 from 44 to 54; the seventeen chapters into which the whole subject was divided seven years ago have been sub-divided or added to, and have risen to thirty in number. Among the new topics which are now discussed are: the public libraries, public baths, bankruptcies, industrial arbitration, trades unions, municipal slaughter-houses and cemeteries. The statistical matter has been carefully collated and annotated by Dr. Neefe's corps of assistants, and is largely based on the coöperation of the various municipal statistical bureaus as well as that of the Prussian and German Statistical Bureaus.

1 Yale Review, Vol. I, p. 108, May, 1892.

A few of the results deduced from the figures may be interesting. As to the percentage increase of urban population in Germany between the years 1890 and 1895, the figure varies greatly, the highest being 72% for Charlottenburg, and the lowest less than 1% for Metz; in general, the manufacturing cities have grown most rapidly (e. g. Essen and Düsseldorf, about 22%), while the fortress and residence cities have lagged behind. Berlin grew but 674% in 'those years, to be explained, perhaps, by the far greater growth of its suburbs, like Charlottenburg. In this connection, the accumulation and concentration of wealth in the manufacturing cities is emphasized by the fact that in Prussia the following percentage of the income tax in each city is paid on individual incomes of 100,000 marks and over: Essen 42% (by 14 taxpayers), Frankfurt a-M. 25%, Duisburg 25%, Elberfeld and Cologne 22%, Düsseldorf 21%. The figure for Berlin is 20.5%, while those for such cities as Cassel, Potsdam and Wiesbaden stand at about 11%. The figures for incomes of between 30,500 and 100,000 marks give a similar result.

In regard to municipal government activity, many lines of it are treated of in a particularly full and interesting way. The average annual cost of cleaning the streets per inhabitant of the 24 cities whose figures are obtainable, separate from the cost of street sprinkling, is almost exactly 1.20 mark (or 29 cents); the figure for Berlin, whose streets are proverbially clean, is still lower, just I mark. In no city is it as high as 2 marks.

Electric lighting is not yet in general use in German cities. Berlin boasts but 8,000 arc and 166,000 incandescent lights. Hamburg is far behind with its 1,300 arc and 33,000 incandescent lights, while Munich is still less progressive with its 377 and 2,500 lights respectively.

The statistics of libraries show the general use made of them. In Berlin, in 1895, over 5,000 books were taken out for every 10,000 inhabitants; in Dresden, Strassburg, Munich and Wiesbaden the figures were still ‘larger.

To a student of municipal problems this work is becoming indispensable and is a fitting model for the proposed New York Bureau of Municipal Statistics, provided for by recent legislation, to follow.

J. C. s.

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