The Laws of Discursive Thought: Being a Text-book of Formal Logic

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R. Carter and Brothers, 1870 - 212 páginas
 

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1517 Importance of Abstraction
15
SINGULAR AND UNIVERSAL NOTIONS 18 All Notions either Singular or Universal 19 Our Primary Knowledge is of Singulars
18
SECTION 2021 Abstraction and Generalization not the same
20
What is presupposed in Generalization
22
First Step Observation of Resemblances
23
2426 Second Step Fixing on Points of Resemblance 27 Third Step Formation of a Class 28 A Universal wherein Indefinite wherein Definite LAWS O...
24
EXTENSION AND COMPREHENSION OF GENERAL NOTIONS 8233 A General Notion embraces Objects Extension and Attributes Comprehensi...
26
Common Notions with an aggregate of Attributes
34
Genus and Species
35
It is Implied that the same Objects are Generalized
36
Coordinate Subordinate and Communicant Species
37
3839 Explanation of this Threefold Division
38
LOGICAL DIVISION
39
The Singular Concrete or Percept
40
The Abstract Notion or Abstract
41
The Universal Notion or Concept
42
Distinction between Generalized Abstract and Generalized Con crete
43
The General Abstract
44
The General Concrete
45
Admits of Higher and Higher Generalizations
46
Relation of General Concrete to Natural Classes
47
Singular Terms Proper Singulars Classified Collective Sin gulars Abstracted
48
Terms both Abstracts and Concepts Denotation and Connota tion
49
Abstract Notions becoming General
50
Mixed Modes of Locke
51
All Notions are Percepts Abstracts or Concepts
52
PRIVATIVE NOTIONS
53
CONTRARY AND CONTRADICTORY NOTIONS
54
RELATIVE AND CORRELATIVE NOTIONS
55
Notions which cannot be defined
68
Definition of General Notions
69
Rule First Bring out a Distinguishing Attribute
70
Definition of General Concrete Notions
71
Rule Second The Definition must be Adequate 73 The Test of a good Definition
73
Rule Third Give the Genus and Differentia
74
Practical Rules
75
Need of a sign of some kind
76
Nature of such
77
Difference between Phantasm and Abstract and General Notion 51
79
ADVANTAGE OF LANGUAGE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF THOUGHT
80
1 A Sign and Register of Abstractions and Generalizations
81
2 Puts us in possession of Abstractions and Generalizations
82
8385 Character of a people shown in their Language
83
Third Law We may demand that the Notion be substituted
84
Advantage of being acquainted with more than one Language
86
Benefit got by our tongue from other tongues
87
Transposed Judgments obtained by Extension
115
SECTION PAGE 45 The Two Dicta Combined
141
Mills Theory of Reasoning Process
143
48Reasoning from Plurative Judgments
144
CONDITIONAL REASONING
145
Its Nature and Rules 50 Common Forms 6153 Relation of Conditional to Categorical Reasoning
146
DISJUNCTIVE REASONING
148
Its Nature and Rules 55 Its Principal Forms 56 Can be Reduced to Categorical
149
Its Nature
150
Its Principal Forms 59 A Trilemma etc
151
CHAINS OF REASONING SORITES 61 Prosyllogism and Episyllogism
152
Reduced to Series of Syllogisms
153
GENERAL REMARKS ON REASONING PROCESS 61 We get the Premisses from Intuition and Observation
155
Some of the Observational Maxims written out others not
156
Some of them Certain others only Probable
157
Experiential or Probable Evidence
158
Is all that can be had in Practical Matters
160
Falls under the Dictum of Aristotle and needs a Major Premiss
161
7273 Reasoning Involved in Induction the Canons of Induction the Major Premiss
162
7576 Concurrence of Evidence
165
Whence the Rapidity of Reasoning Process ? 78 In what sense are the Truths reached New ?
168
What Logic can do in guarding against Fallacies
169
How the Heart sways the Head
171
Division of Fallacies 83 FORMAL FALLACIES
172
Undistributed Middle
173
Negative Premisses
174
Fallacies of Conditionals
175
Fallacia Accidentis
178
Equivocation
179
Oblique Expression
180
Fallacy of Division and Composition
181
Imperfect Division
182
Fallacy of Shifting Ground
183
Fallacia Plurium Interrogationum
184
Syllogistic Reasoning not Petitio Principii
185
Ignoratio Elenchi
186
Proving only part of the Question
187
Argumentum ad populum
188
Fallacy of Pretension
189
Mistakes as to Onus Probandi 112 Fallacies of Analogy
191
Imperfect Enumeration
192
Non Causa pro Causa 15 Post Hoc ergo Propter
193
Mistaking Sign for Cause
194
FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF DISCURSIVE THOUGHT 118 How they are discovered
195
The Law of Contradiction 121 The Law of Excluded Middle VI VAViuucu ALIUUIO 122 The Principle of Equality
196
APPENDIX
199

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