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company made us astonished, which were early at the brv.9, 10. sépulchre; 23 and when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive. 24 And certain of them c ver. 12. which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not. 25 Then he said unto them, Oc fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken : 26 d ought not dveridet Christ to have suffered these things, and to d enter into his glory? 27 And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself. 28 And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and e he made as though he would have gone further. 29 But they 'constrained him, Gen.

e render, without understanding. d render, have entered.


• see Gen.

xxxii. 20:
xlii. 7.
Mark vi. 48.

Acts xvi. 15.

day: the words are spoken not with- enter into His glory. It was not the out a reference, in the mind of the entering into His glory, but the suffering, speaker, to His promise of rising on the about which they wanted persuading. third day.

22.] Yea, and ...or, 27.] beginning belongs to both the but, moreover-equivalent to, certainly, following clauses. A similar expression is thus much has happened, that'

found Acts iii. 24. He began with Moses of our company- literally, of us :- - dis- first ;-He began with each as He came to ciples, as we are.' The Apostles are dis- them. the things concerning himself. tinguished presently as certain of them De Wette remarks, “It were much to which were with us, ver. 24.

be wished that we knew what prophe23.] This agrees exactly with St. Luke's cies of the death and triumph of Christ own narrative, but not with St. Matthew's, are here meant. There are but few that in which they had seen the Lord Him- point to the subject.” But I take the self. There seems however to be some things concerning himself to mean somehint that the women had said something thing very different from mere prophetical of having seen the Lord, in the him passages. The whole Scriptures are a they saw not,” said below of the “cer. testimony to Him: the whole history of tain of them which were with us." the chosen people, with its types, and its

24. certain] See ver. 12 and note. law, and its prophecies, is a shewing forth It is natural, even in accordance with ver. of Him : and it was here the whole,-all 12, that the antithesis to "certain women the scriptures,—that He laid out before before, and the loose way of speaking to a them. This general leading into the meanstranger, who (they believed) was not ing of the whole, as a whole, fulfilled in acquainted with any among them, might Him, would be much more opportune to cause them here to use this word without the place, and time occupied, than a direct any reference to Peter being accompanied. exposition of selected passages. the But what wonder, if the reports of such things concerning himself is right: not, a day of anxiety and confusion were them. “the parts concerning Him.' Obselves disjointed and confused ?

serve the testimony which this verse gives 25.] The word rendered fools is more to the divine authority, and the Christian properly without understanding :-slow interpretation of the Old Testament of heart, i. e. sluggish—in disposition - Scriptures : so that the denial of the reto believe: these were both shewn in their ferences to Christ's death and glory in not having apprehended, from the fulfil- the 0. T. is henceforth nothing less than ment of the sufferings and death of Christ, a denial of His own teaching. the sequel of that death, the resurrection. 29. they constrained him] It is not

26. to have suffered ... and to implied that He said any thing to inhave entered] The sufferings were the dicate that He would go further - but appointed way by which Christ should simply, that He was passing on.

“ Our

xxvi. 26.

saying, Abide with us : for it is toward evening, and the day is e far spent. And he went in to tarry with them.

30 And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he • Matt. xiv. 10:a took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.

31 And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and b see ch iz: So he vanished out of their sight. 32 And they said one to

another, Did not our heart burn [l within us], while he 8 talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures ? 33 And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered

together, and them that were with them, 34 saying, The e 1 Cor. IV.5. Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon. e read, now far.

f omitted in some of the early MSS. & render, spoke to us. blessed Saviour pretended that He would the master of the house (which alone pass forth beyond Emmaus; but if He in. would shew that it was not their house, tended not to do it, yet He did no injury but an inn), perhaps on account of the to the two disciples, for whose good it was superior place which His discourse had that He intended to make this offer : and won for Him in their estimation :--and as neither did He prevaricate the strictness of the Jewish rule was, that “three eating simplicity and sincerity, because they were together were bound to give thanks, persons with whom He had made no con. He fulfils this duty. In doing so, perhaps tracts; to whom He had passed no obliga- the well-known manner of His taking tion ; and in the nature of the thing, it bread, &c., perhaps the marks of the nails is proper and natural, by an offer, to give in His hands, then first noticed, or these an occasion to another to do a good action: together, as secondary means,—but cerand in case it succeeds not, then to do tainly His own will and permission to be what we intended not; and so the offer seen by them, opened their eyes to know was conditional.” Jer. Taylor, Sermon on Hiin. 31.] he vanished out of their Christian Simplicity. Works (Heber), vi. sight does not imply His Body to have 156. with us does not imply that remained, though invisible to them: but they lived at Emmaus; merely in the plainly indicates in the original, besides same quarters with us. 30.] I be- the supernatural disappearance, a real oblieve that there was something in the jective removal from them. 32.] ‘Was manner of His breaking the bread, and there not something heart-kindling in His helping and giving it to them, which was discourse by the way, which would have his own appointed means of opening their led us to suppose that it was none but the eyes to the recognition of Him. But we Lord Hims If?' not that they did supmust not suppose any reference to, much pose it, - but the words are a sort of selfless any celebration of, the Sacrament of reproach for not having done so. Comthe Lord's Supper, Neither of these dis- pare Matt. vij. 29.

he spoke to us, ciples was present at its institution (but not merely, 'with us,' as A. V.: it was not see Wieseler's conjecture, which is at all so much a talking with them, as a disevents worth consideration, in note course delivered to them.

33.] “They ver. 13); and certainly it had never been have now no fear of the journey at night, celebrated since. With this simple con- from which they before dissuaded their unsideration will fall to the ground all that known companion.” Bengel. The whole Romanists have built on this incident, eleven were not there - Thomas was not even to making it a defence of administra- present. Some have derived an argument tion in one kind only. The analogy of from this incompleteness in their number, such a breaking and giving with His in- for the second of the travellers being also stitution of that holy ordinance becomes an Apostle ; see above on ver. 13. lost, when we force the incident into an Who them that were with them are, we example of the ordinance itself. The Lord learn from Acts i. 14. 34.] This at their meal takes on Him the office of appearance to Simon (i. e. Peter - the



35 And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in h breaking of bread.

36 And as they thus spake, i Jesus himself a stood in the d 1 Cor. xv. 5. midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. 37 But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they j had seen a spirit. 38 And he said unto them, e Mark vi. 40. Why are ye troubled ? and why do k thoughts arise in your hearts ? 39 Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: 'handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh 'John 11. 20, and bones, as ye see me have. 40 And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet. while they yet believed not for 1 joy, and wondered, he said unto them, & Have ye here any m meat ? 42 And they 8 John xxi. 5. gave him a piece of a broiled fish [n, and of an honey

h render, his breaking. i render, beheld.

k render, reasonings. 1 render, their joy.

mi.e. food. omitted by almost all the ancient authorities : see note.

41 And


read, he.

other Simon would not be thus named have been dead. a spirit is a ghost without explanation ; see ch. v. 3 ff.) is or spectre- an appearance of the dead to only hinted at here—but is asserted again, the living; not exactly as "a phantasm,1 Cor. xv. 5, in immediate connexion with Matt. xiv. 26, which might have been any that which here follows. It is not clear appearance of a supernatural kind. whether it took place before or after that 38.] Not merely `thoughts, as A. V., but on the way to Emmaus. 35.] And they reasonings, questionings. 39.] There -the travellers, distinguished from the seems to be some donbt whether the referothers-not they also,' for thus we should ence to His hands and feet were on acleave the clause without a copula.

count of the marks of the nails, to prove known of them in his breaking of bread] His identity,-or as being the uncovered That this should have been so, does not parts of His body, and to prove his corexclude the supernatural opening of their poreity. Both views seem supported by eyes : see above, on ver. 31.

the text, and I think both were united. 36–49.] APPEARANCE OF JESUS TO The sight of the Hands and Feet, which THE DISCIPLES. Mark xvi. 14. John xx. they recognized as His, might at once 19-23. The identity of these appearances convince them of the reality of the appear. need hardly be insisted on. On St. Mark's ance, and the identity of the Person. The narrative, see notes there. That of St. account of St. John confirms the idea that John presents no difficulties, on one sup- He showed them the marks of the nails, position, that he had not seen this of St. both by His side being added, and by the Luke. The particulars related by him are expressions of Thomas which followed. The mostly additional, but not altogether so. same seems also implied in our ver. 40. 36.] stood in the midst of them

The assertion of the Lord must not while they were speaking of these things, be taken as representing merely 'the popu— possibly not entirely crediting the ac- lar notion concerning spirits' (Dr. Burton); count, as seems hinted at in Mark xvi. 13, He who is the Truth, does not speak thus -the Lord appeared, the doors being shut, of that which He knows, and has created. in the midst (John xx. 19 and notes). He declares to us the truth, that those ap

Peace be unto you, the ordinary pearances to which He was now likened by Jewish salutation, see ch. x. 5, but of more the disciples, and spirits in general, have than ordinary meaning in the mouth of not flesh and bones. Observe flesh and the Lord: see John xiv. 27. 37.] bones—but not blood. This the resurrecOn account of His sudden appearance, and tion Body probably had not,- - as being the the likeness to one whom they knew to animal life :

:---see notes on John vi. 51, VOL. I.


h Acts I. 41. comb]. 43 h And he took it, and did eat before them.

44 And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses,

and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. i Acts xvii. 3. 45 Then opened he their understanding, that they might Rets in understand the scriptures, 46 and said unto them, p 'Thus it

is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise Acts from the dead the third day : 47 and that repentance and m Isa, N.im3. k remission of sins should be preached in his name among 7%" all 4 nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 48 [+ And] 'ye are At 4: il. witnesses of these things. 49 And, m behold, I send the

46. 1 John

ii. 12. 1 John xv. 27.

o read, my.

I omit.

- were

P read, Thus it is written that Christ should suffer, and should . .

q render, the nations. and John xx. 27. 42.] This was done to a saying not recorded. This three further to convince them of his real cor. fold division of the 0. T. is the ordinary poreity. The omission of the words and Jewish one, into the Law, Prophets, and of an honeycomb in the best MSS. is re- Hagiographa,—the first containing the markable : see var. readd. It may possibly Pentateuch ;—the second Joshua, Judges, have arisen from an idea in some tran- the four books of Kings, and the Prophets, scriber that this meal is the same as that except Daniel ;—the third the Psalms, and in John xxi. 9. The words could hardly all the rest of the canonical books :have been an interpolation. 44.] Daniel, Esther, Ezra, and Nehemiah being Certainly, from the form of the beginning reckoned as one book, and the Chronicles of this verse, which implies immediate closing the canon. 47.] The subsequence, St. Luke, at the time of writing stance of the preaching of the Gospel litehis Gospel, was not in possession of records rally corresponded to this descriptionof any Galilæan appearances of the Lord, see Acts ii. 38: “Repent and be baptized nor indeed of any later than this one. That every one of you in the name of Jesus he corrects this in Acts i., shews him mean- Christ for the remission of sins," time to have become acquainted with some the words of the first sermon preached at other sources of information, not however Jerusalem. 48. ye] From what follows, perhaps including the Galilæan appear- Acts i. 22, if these words are to be taken

The following discourse appa- in their strict sense, they must have been rently contains a summary of many things spoken only to the Apostles ;-they may said during the last forty days before the however have been more general, and said ascension ;—they cannot have been said to all present. 49.] This promise is on this evening : --for after the command explained (Acts i. 5) to be the baptism in ver. 49, the disciples would not have with the Holy Ghost,- and the time is gone away into Galilee. Whether the

limited to 'not many days hence.' Evangelist regarded it as a summary, is I send (the I is emphatic)] The proces. to me extremely doubtful. Knowing ap- sion of the Holy Spirit from the Son is parently of no Galilæan appearances, he clearly here declared, as well as that from seems to relate the command of ver. 49, the Father. And consequently we find St. both here and in the Acts, as intended to Peter, in Acts ii. 33, referring back to apply to the whole time between the Re. these very words, in ascribing the outsurrection and the Ascension. These pouring of the Spirit to the now exalted are my words ..i. e. behold the reali- Saviour. In that verse, the “I” of this zation of My words,' &c. which I is filled up by being by the right hand of spake: see ch. xviii. 31-33; xxii. 37; God exalted—the proper supplement of Matt. xxvi. 56 al.; but doubtless He had it here also. The promise itself is not often said things to them on these matters, found in the three Gospels, but expressly which have not been recorded for 11s. So and frequently in John xiv.-xvi. : see in John x. 25, we have perhaps a reference xiv. 16–26; xv. 26; xvi. 7-11, 13, 14.


& omit.

promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city [ of Jerusalem], until ye be t endued with power from on high. 50 And he led them out as far as to Bethany, n Acts i. 12. and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. 61. And it mark came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from a "Eph. them, and carried up into heaven. 52 P And they wor- Pitt. xxviii. shipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy : 53 and were continually in the temple, praising and Art. 1. 26 : blessing God. [1 Amen.] trender, clothed.

U omitted by several ancient authorities. The present, I send, is not equiva. parted from them - not, . He went a little lent to a future, but implies that the distance from them previous to His ascenactual work is done, and the state brought sion,'-as Meyer would interpret it; but in, by which that sending is accomplished; the two verbs belong to one and the same

-- viz. the giving of the “all power in incident,—he was parted from them and heaven and earth,Matt. xxviii. 18. borne up into heaven. We need not unThe words “of Jerusalemhave proba. derstand, by an angel,' or 'by a cloud ;' bly been interpolated by some who, be- the absolute passive is best. The lieving these words to represent the tense is imperfect, signifying the conGalilæan discourse, placed it here for an tinuance of the going up during the explanation : or perhaps Acts i. 4 gave worshippingof the next verse. occasion to it. This command must have The more particular account of the Ascen. been (historically) uttered after the return sion is given Acts i. 9-12, where see from Galilee : see above. be clothed notes. That account is in perfect acwith] The verb here has its full meaning, cordance with this, but supplementary to of abiding upon and characterizing, as a it. 52. they worshipped him] This garment does the person. This, as Stier had been done before by the women, Matt. remarks, was the true and complete xxviii. 9, and by the disciples on the clothing of the nakedness of the Fall. mountain in Galilee. This however was a

50.] The Ascension appears to be more solemn act of worship, now paid to related as taking place after the above Him as exalted to God's right hand. words were spoken—but there is an un

53.] continually,-not all their certainty and want of specification about time;'-daily, at the hours of prayer : see the narrative, which forbids us to conclude Acts i. 13, 14; iii. 1. that it is intended as following imme- A few words must be appended here in diately upon them. This, however, can vindication of THE CIRCUMSTANCES only be said as taking the other Gospels THE ASCENSION. To those who doubt and Acts i. into account: if we had none the fact of an Ascension at all, I have but the Gospel of St. Luke, we should nothing to say, standing as I do altocertainly say that the Lord ascended gether on different_ground from them. after the appearance to the Apostles

The Lord Himself foretold His and others, on the evening of the day Ascension, John vi. 62; xx. 17:— it was of His resurrection. he led them immediately after His disappearance from out, i. e. probably, from the words "in the earth expressly announced by the the city" just having occurred, out- Apostles, Acts ii. 33, 34 ; v. 31 :-conside Jerusalem: but the "out" might tinued to be an article of their preaching only apply to the house in which they and teaching, 1 Pet. iii. 22; Eph. ii. 6; Matt. xxvi. 75.

iv. 10; 1 Tim. iii. 16. So far should we far as

to Bethany-not quite to the have been assured of it, even had we not village itself, but over the brow of the possessed the testimonies of St. Luke here Mount of Olives, where it descends on and in the Acts :—for the fragment superBethany : see Acts i. 12. (The synony- added to the Gospel of St. Mark merely mousness of these two expressions may states the fact, not the manner of it. But, shew that the same is meant, when, Mark to take first the à priori view,-is it proxi. 11, our Lord is said to have gone out at bable that our Lord would have left so night to Bethany, and Luke xxi. 37, to the weighty a fact in His history on earth, Mount of Olives.) 51.] he was without witnesses ? And might we not


were :



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