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אַבְרָהָם אֶל-נְעָרָיו וַיָּקָמוּ וַיֵּלְכוּ יַחְדָּו אֶל־בְּאֵר שָׁבַע
וישֶׁב אַבְרָהָם בִּבְאֵר שָׁבַע : טפטור מ וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּגַּד לְאַבְרָהָם לֵאמר
הנֵּה יָלְדָה מִלְכָּה גַם־הִוא בָּנִים לְנָחוֹר אָחִיך: 21 אֶת־ עוּץ בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת־בּוּז אָחִיו וְאֶת־קְמוּאֵל אֲבִי אֲרָם : 22 וְאֶת־כָּשֶׁד וְאֶת־חֲזוֹ וְאֶת־פִלְדֶש וְאֶת־יִדְלֶף וְאֵת בְּתוּאֵל: 23 וּבְתוּאֵל יָלַד אֶת־רִבְקָה שְׁמֹנָה אֵלֶה לָרֶה מִלְכָּה לְנָחוֹר אֲחִי אַבְרָהָם: 24 ופּילַגְשׁוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ רְאוּמָה וַתֵּלֶד גַּם־הִוא אֶת־טֶבַח וְאֶת־נַחַם וְאֶת־תַּחַשׁ
כג וַיְהִיוּ חַנִי שָׂרָה מֵאָה שָׁנָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים
שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי שָׂרָה: 2 וַתָּמָת שָׂרָה בְּקִרְיַת אַרְבַּע הִוא ג' היא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַבא אַבְרָהָם לִסְפְּד לְשָׂרָה וְלִבְנֹתָהּ 3 וַיָּקָם אַבְרָהָם מֵעַל פְּנֵי מֵתוֹ וַיְדַבֵּר
בְּנֵי־חֵת לָאמָר; 4 בֶּר וְתוֹשָׁב אָנכִי עִמָּכֶם תְּנוּ לִי אֲחָזַת-קָבֶר .עמָּכֶם וְאֶקְבְּרֶה מֵתֵי מִלְפָנָי: 5 וַיַּעַנְוּ בְנֵי-חֵת אֶתי אַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר לְוֹ : 6 שְׁמָעֵנוּ אֲדֹנִי נְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה בְּתוֹכֵנוּ בְּמִבְחַר קְבָרִינוּ קְבַר אֶת־מֵתָךְ אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־קִבְרָוֹ לֹא־יִכְלֶה מִמְךְ מַקְבֶר מֵתֵךְ: 7 וַיָּקָם אַבְרָהָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְעַם־הָאָרֶץ לְבְנֵי־חֵת : 8 וַיְדַבֵּר אִתָּם לֵאמֹר אִם־יִשׁ אֶת־נַפְשְׁכֶם לִקְבַּר אֶת־מֵתִי מִלְפָנַי שְׁמָעוּנִי וּפַגְעוּ־לִי בְּעֶפְרוֹן בֶּן־צְחַר : 9 וְיִתֶּן־לִי אֶת־ מְעָרַת הַמַכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אֲשֶׁר בִּקְצֵה שָׂדֵהוּ בְּכֶסֶף מָלֵא יִתְּנֶנָּה לִי בְּתוֹכְכֶם לַאֲחיַּת קָקְבֶר: 10 וְעֶפְרוֹן יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי־חֵת וַיִּען עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בְּאָזְנִי בְנֵי־חֵת לְכָל בָּאֵי שַׁעַר־עִירוֹ לֵאמֹר: לְא־אֲדֹנִי שְׁמָעני הַשָּׂדֶה נָתַתִּי לָךְ וְהַמְעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ לְךְ נְתַתִּיהָ לְעֵינֵי
and clave the wood for the burnt- and said Abraham, Abraham. And offering, and rosé, up and went he said, Here am I. unto the place of which God had • 12 And he said, Lay not thine told him.
hand upon the lad, neither do 4 Then on the third day Abraham, thou any thing unto him; for now lifted up his eyes, and saw the
saw the I know that thou fearest God, place afar off.
seeing thou hast not withheld thy 5 And Abraham said unto his son, thine only son from me.. young men, Abide you here with 13 And Abraham lifted up his. the ass; and I and the lad will go eyes and looked, and behold, beyonder and worship, and come hind him a ram caught in a thicket again to you.
by his horns : and Abraham went 6 And Abraham took the wood of and took the ram, and offered the burnt-offering, and laid it upon him up for a burnt-offering, in the Isaac his son; and he took the fire stead of his son. in his hand, and a knife : and they 14 And Abraham called the went both of them together. name of that place Jehovah-jireh:
7 And Isaac spake unto Abraham as it is said to this day, In the his father, and said, My father : mount of the Lord it shall be seen. and he said, Here am I, my son, 15 And the angel of the LORD And he said, Behold the fire and called unto Abraham out of heaven the wood: but where is the lamb the second time, for a burnt-offering?
16 And said, by myself have I 8 And Abraham said, My son, sworn, saith the LORD, Ifor beGod will provide himself a lamb * cause thou hast done this thing, for a burnt-offering : so they went and hast not withheld thy son, both of them together.
thine only son : 9 And they came to the place 17 That in blessing I will bless which God had told him of, and thee, and in multiplying I will Abraham built an altar there, and multiply thy seed as the stars of laid the wood in order; and bound the heaven, and as the sand which Isaac his son, and laid him on the is upon the sea-shore; and thy altar upon the wood.
seed shall possess the gate of his 10 And Abraham stretched forth enemies; his hand, and took the knife to 18 And in thy seed shall all the slay his son.
nations of the earth be blessed: 11 And the angel of the LORD because thou hast obeyed my voice. called unto him out of heaven, 19 So Abraham returned unto us of the truth and reality of the spirit of prophecy, and that the prophets had not a doubt of the truth of what they saw, and heard in a vision, although it might be contrary to the common or ordinary course of nature, &c. Maimonides in Moreh Nevucheem, part 8, chap. xxiii.
Abraham carried no lamb with him, because he was not ordered to do it; and being asked by bis son where the lamb was for the burnt-offering, he answered him, “I trust in God that he will provide himself the lanıb for the burnt-offering :" by which it appears as if he expected to find, at the place, a lamb ready to his hand ? but, arriving at the place, and not finding any thing of which he could take for a burnt-offering, he concluded that the commandment was to offer up his son. What follows of this narrative needs no comment. "The period of Isaac's lifc, in which this trial was made, I think most likely to have been when he was thirteen years old, which is the time that the Jews begin to initiate their children in religious rites. He could not well be much younger, since he was capable of carrying the wood, &c. nor much older, because his father would not have been able to tie him, since this could not have been done with his consent; for, had it been so, his trial would have been greater than his father's, of which Scripture would have taken notice; but we do not find it ever doth.
As this expression seems to be opposite to God's omniscience: Í shall say a few words in answer to it: that it is the opinion among the Jewish commentators, that these words were the angels: and who, as a creature, was not so fully acquainted with his righteousness before, as after the act.
+ 'This, as Nachranides observes, is a sure pledge of God's providence in the preservation of Abraham's posterity and their future redemption; when all nations shall be blessed in them, i.e. shall be brought to the knowledge and service of the one true God.
בְּנְוֹ וַיְבָקַע עֲצֵי עלָה וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר־
הָאֱלֹהִים: 4 בַּיּוֹם הַשְׁלִישִׁי וַיִּשָּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת־ עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם מֵרָחְקְ: 5 וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־ נְעָרָיו שְׁבוּ-לָכֶס פּה עִם-הַחֲמוֹר וַאֲנִי וְהַנַּעַר נֵלְכָה עַד־ כֹּה וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשְׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם: 6 וַיִּקַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־
הָעלֶה וַיָּשֶׂם עַל־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיִּקָּח בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־הָאֵשׁ
הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת וַיֵּלֶכְוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו : 7 וַיֹּאמֶר יִצְחָק אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר אָבִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנְנִי בְנִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה הָאֵשׁ וְהָעֵצִים וְאַיִךְ הַשֶׂה לְעלֶה: 8 וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהִים יִרְאֶה־לוֹ הַשָׂה לְעלֶה בְּנִי וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו : 9 וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר-לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּבֶן שָׁם אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַעֲרִךְאֶת־הָעֵצִיסְ וַיַּעַקְר אֶת־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִמַּעַל לָעצים: 10 וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקְתָ אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשֶׁחַט אֶת־בְּנָו : ii וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי : 12 וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־ תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל־הַנער וְאַל־תַּעַשׂ לִי מְאוּמָה כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶתיְחִירְךְ מִמֶּנִּי : 13 וַיִּשָּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת-עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה-אַיִל אַחַר נֶאֱחַז בַּסְבַךְ בְּקַרְנָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָהָם וַיַּקַח אֶת-הָאַיִל וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ לְעֹלָה תַּחַת בְּנְוֹ: 14 וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָהָם שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא יְהוָהי יִרְאֶה אֲשֶׁר יֵאָמֵר הַיּוֹם בְּהַר יְהוָה יֵרָאֶה : 15 וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־ אַבְרָהָם שֵׁנִית מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם: 16 וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא חָשַׁכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת-יְחִידֶךְ : 17 כִּי־בָרֶךְ אֲבָרֶכְן וְהַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעד כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכָחוֹל אֲשֶׁו עַל־שְׂפַת הַיָּם וְרָשׁ זַרְעֶךָ אֵת שַׁעַר אֹיְבָיו: 18 וְהִתְבָּרַך בְזַרְעֲךָ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקֹלִי: 19 ויש
and he grew, and dwelled in the ewe-lambs shalt thou take of my wilderness, and became an archer. hand, that they may be a witness
21 And he dwelled in the wilder-" unto me, that I have digged this ness of Paran : and his mother well. took him a wife out of the land of 31 Wherefore he called that Egypt,
place Beer-sheba: I because there 22 | And it came to pass at they sware both of them. that time, that Abimelech and 32 Thus they made a covenant Phichol the chief captain of his at Beer-sheba: then Abimelech host spake unto Abraham, saying, rose up, and Phichol the chief God is with thee in all that thou captain of his host, and they doest.
returned into the land of the 23 Now therefore swear unto Philistines. me here by God, that thou wilt 33 9 And Abraham planted a not deal falsly with me, * nor with grove in Beer-sheba, and called my son, nor with my son's son: there on the name of the LORD, but according to the kindness that the everlasting God, I have done unto thee, thou shalt 34 And Abraham sojourneyed do unto me, and to the land where- in the Philistines land many days. in thou hast sojourneyed, 24 And Abraham said, I will
1 Abraham offering Isaac. ll is 25 And Abraham reproved Abi
stayed by an angel: 15 He is melech because of a well of water, blessed again. 20 The generation which Abimelech's servants had
of Nahor unto Rebekah. violently taken away.
26 And Abimelech said, I wot AND it came to pass after these not who hath done this thing: things, that God did tempt Abraneither didst thou tell me, & neither ham, || and said unto him, Abraham, yet heard I of it but to day. and he said, Behold here I am.
27 And Abraham took sheep, 2 And he said, Take now thy and oxen, and gave them unto son, thipe only son Isaac, whom Abimelech : and both of them thou lovest, and get thee into the made a covenant.
land of Moriah, and offer him 28 And Abraham set seven ewe- there for a burnt-offering upon lambs of the flock by themselves. one of the mountains which I will
29 And Abimelech said unto tell thee of. Abrahạm, What mean these seyen 3 And Abraham rose up early ewe-lambs, which thou hast set in the morning, and saddled his by themselves?
ass, and took two of his young 30 And he said, For these seven men with him, and Isaac his son;
• As Abraham was not his subject he could not command him ; but as Abraham had sojourneyed in his' land, and he was acquainted with the power of Abraham, i. e. God's protection : he wa desirous of Abraham's oath, that he would live in amity with him : and which, as Nachmanides says was what Abraham was right in doing, as Abimelech had treated him well: and as to the affair a the well, Abraham rebuked him for it, although he seems not to be in fault.
Hence, it appears that if Abraham had complained of the injury done him sooner, it would have been redressed.
# That is, the well of the oath. || Not that it was necessary for God to try him in order to know whether Abraham had faith an love sufficient to obey his coinmand, for all things are known to him; neither was it that the rest mankind might be made acquainted with his righteousness, for there was nobody present, not even his own servants; but Nachmanides hath observed, it was (by being recorded in holy writ) acquaint us with the full extent of Abraham's faith and love which he bore towards the Supres Being; in that he not only put himself in jeopardy by circumcising himself in his old age ; and a banished Ishmael : but that even this son which was given
him as the greatest of blessings in uld age, he was willing and ready to sacrifice at his command: he farther observes, that it infort