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service in the criticismı and explanations Be'ring. See Behring.
metaphysical affinities greatly influenced the subsequent celebrated
his ideal theory of development of chemistry.
philosophy. He was born in Ireland in Bergmehl (bérg'mal), mountain- 1685 (his father being an officer of cus
meal or fossil farina, a toms); became fellow of Trinity College, geological deposit (fresh-water) in the Dublin, in 1707; in 1721 was appointed form of an extremely fine powder, con- chaplain to the Lord-lieutenant of Iresisting almost entirely of the siliceous land, the Duke of Grafton. By a legacy frustules or cell-walls of diatoms. It is from Miss Vanhomrigh (Swift's Vana variety of diatomite (which see). essa), in 1723 his fortune was consider.
(berg'son), HENRI Louis, ably increased. In 1724 he became Dean Bergson
a French philosopher, born of Derry. He now published his Proin Paris in 1859, and since 1900 profez- posals for the Conversion of the Amersor of philosophy in the Collège de ican Savages to Christianity by the EstabFrance. His writings, of which Creative lishment of a College in the Bermuda Evolution is the most popular, are marked Islands; and subscriptions having been by great lucidity and richness of style. raised, he set sail for Rhode Island in Bergson holds that the fulness of reality 1728, proposing to wait there till a promcannot be grasped by the intellect be- ised grant of £20,000 had been got from cause the universe is continually chang- government. The scheme never got a ing, whereas concepts are fixed.
start, however, and he returned, now reBergylt (ber'gilt; Sebastes marinus), ceiving the bishopric of Cloyne.' He died
a name given in Shetland to suddenly at Oxford in 1753. Berkeley the rose-fish, a fish of the family Scorpæ- holds an important place in the history of nidae, of a beautiful reddish color, some- philosophy. He maintains that the belief times found on the British coasts, and in the existence of an exterior material called Norway haddock and Norway world is false and inconsistent with itself; carp.
and those things which are called sensible Berhampur (bér-a m-pur'),
the material objects are not external but
of two Indian exist in the mind, and are merely imprestowns: 1. A town and military station in sions made on our minds by the immedithe northeast portion of Madras presi- ate act of God, according to certain rules dency, the headquarters of Ganjám dis- termed laws of nature, from which he trict, with a trade in sugar and manu- never deviates; and that the steady adfactures of silks. Pop. about 25,000.-2. herence of the Supreme Spirit to these A municipal town and the administrative rules is what constitutes the reality of headquarters of Murshidábád district, things to his creatures, and so effectually Bengal; formerly a military station, and distinguishes the ideas perceived by sense having still large barracks. It was the from such as are the work of the mind scene of the first overt act of mutiny in itself or of dreams, that there is no more 1857. Pop. about 25,000.
danger of confounding them together on Beriberi (ber'-i-ber-i), a disease en• this hypothesis than on that of the exist
demic in parts of India, ence of matter. Berkeley was admirable Ceylon. Japan. etc., characterized by as a writer; as a man he was said by paralysis, numbness, difficult breathing, his friend Pope to be possessed of every and often other symptoms, attacking virtue under heaven.' His most cele. strangers as well as natives, and fre- brated philosophical works are : Essay toquently fatal; thought to be due to eating wards à New Theory of Vision, 1709; a of rice entirely rather than a mixed diet. Treatise on the Principles of Human It is now less frequent in Japan since Knowledge, 1710, in which his philosophrice is not the only food of the people. ical theory is fully set forth ; Three Dia.
logues between Hylas and Philonous, Nuremberg, he at last headed the insur1713; Alciphron, or the Jinute Philos- gents in the Peasants' War of 1525, and opher, 1732; and Siris, Philosophical Re- suffered imprisonment on their defeat. flections and Inquiries concerning the After the dissolution of the Suabian Virtues a l'ar-water, 1744. There were league he again fought against the Turks others of a mathematical and theological (1541) and the French (1544). He died order, the only complete edition being in 1562. His autobiography, printed at that of Fraser, 3 vols. 1871.
Nuremberg in 1731, furnished Goethe Berkeley,
GEORGE CHARLES GRANT- with the subject for his drama, Goetz von
LEY FITZHARDINGE, a Brit. Berlichingen. ish author, sixth son of the fifth Earl of Berlin (ber-lin'), capital of the Prusrecognized marriage; born in 1800. From German Empire and much the largest city 1832-52 he was Liberal member for West in Germany, formerly in the province of Gloucestershire. He became notorious in Brandenburg, lies on a sandy plain on 1836 for his assault upon Fraser, the both sides of the Spree, a sluggish stream, publisher, and his duel with Maginn for here about 200 feet abroad. It has water a hostile review in Fraser's Magazine of communication to the North Sea by the his first novel, Berkeley Castle. Besides Spree, which Aows into the Havel, a other stories, poems, and works upon tributary of the Elbe, and to the Baltic travel, sport, etc., he published in 1865- by canals connecting with the Oder. The 66 his Life and Recollections in 4 vols., original portion of the city, lies on the and in 1867 a volume of reminiscences en- right bank of the river, and is irregularly titled Anecdotes of the Upper Ten Thou- built. The more modern portion is regusandboth of which gave rise to much lar in its plan, and the streets are lined discussion. He died in 1881.
with lofty and well-built edifices mostly Berkshire (bėrk’shir): OBERKS,& of handsome architectural design and
Of the tween Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, numerous bridges, the finest is the Castle Surrey, Hampshire, and Wilts; area (Schloss) Bridge, 104 feet wide, and 705 sg. miles, of which eight-ninths are having eight piers surmounted by colossal cultivated or under timber. A range of groups of sculpture in marble. The princhalk hills, entering from Oxfordshire, cipal and most frequented street, Unter crosses Berkshire in a westerly direction. den Linden (* under the lime-trees'), is The western and central parts are the about a mile in length and 160 feet wide, most productive in the county, which the center being occupied by a double contains rich pasturage and excellent avenue of lime-trees. At the E. end of dairy farms, and is especially suited for this street, and round the Lustgarten, a barley and wheat crops. The Thames
square with which it is connected by the skirts the county on the north, and con- Schloss Bridge, are clustered the principal nects the towns of Abingdon, Walling; public buildings of the city, such as the ford, Reading, Henley, Maidenhead, and royal palace, the palace of the crownWindsor with the metropolis. Few prince, the arsenal, the university, the manufactures are carried on, the prin; museums, royal academy, etc. ; while at cipal being agricultural implements and the w. end is the Brandenburg Gate, reartificial manures, flour, paper, sacking garded as one of the finest portals in and sail-cloth, and biscuits (at Reading). existence. Immediately beyond this gate Malt is made in great quantities. The is the Thiergarten (zoological garden), minerals are unimportant. Pop. 195,814. an extensive and well-wooded park conBerlad (ber'lad),
town of taining the palace of Bellevue and places Rumania, on the Berlad, a of public amusement. There are also navigable tributary of the Sereth. Has a several other public parks, and a zoologilarge trade in maize. Pop. 24,484. cal garden which ranks with the best in Berlengas (hér-kén'gas.. ma group of the world, also important natural history,
about twelve rocky islands, ethnographical and other museums. The off the coast of Portugal.
principal public buildings are the royal Berlichingen (ber'li hing-én), Götz palace or Schloss, a vast
rectangular pile, the Iron Hand'; born at Jagsthausen, in fine Grecian building, with an extensive Suabia, in 1480. He took part in various collection of sculpture and painting; the quarrels among the German princes; and royal theater is also a fine Grecian edihaving lost his right hand at the siege of fice. The roya library and palace of the Landshut, wore thereafter one made of emperor are united; the former contains iron. In constant feud with his baronial above 1,000,000 volumes and 30,000 neighbors, and even with free cities like manuscripts and charts. The arsenal
(Zeughaus), besides arms and artillery, reliefs, etc., are cast, together with a contains flags and other trophies of great great variety of ornaments of unrivaled antiquity. The university, the exchange, delicacy of workmanship. The older the Italian opera-house, the principal parts of the city were originally poor Jewish synagogue, the town-hall, and the villages, and first rose to some importance old architectural academy are all beauti- under Markgraf Albert (1106-1170), yet ful structures. The town contains alto- about two centuries ago Berlin was still gether about twenty-five theaters, thirty a place of little consequence, the first imhospitals, sixteen barracks, ten or twelve portant improvement being
made by the cemeteries, etc. The prevailing style of great Elector Frederick William, who the newer buildings, both public and pri- planted the Unter den Linden, and in
Berlin-Royal Theater and New Church in the Gensdarmenmarkt. vate, is Grecian, pure or Italianized. One whose time it already numbered 20,000 of the most remarkable of modern monu- inhabitants. Under his successors Fredments is that erected in 1851 to Fred- erick I and Frederick the Great the city erick the Great in the Unter den Linden was rapidly enlarged and improved, the —the chef-d'æuvre of Rauch and his population increasing fivefold in the hunpupils. The literary institutions of the dred years preceding the death of Fredcity are numerous and excellent; they erick the Great and tenfold in the include the university, having an educa. century succeeding it. The population tional staff of about 500 professors and within recent years has rapidly increased, teachers, and attended by nearly 8000 and was estimated in 1910 at 2,064,153. students and 7000 'hearers'; the acad
CONGRESS OF. The preliminary emy of sciences; the academy of fine
treaty of San Stefano, conarts; and the technical high school or cluded between Russia and Turkey after academy of architecture and industry the war of 1877-78, was so greatly in (occupying a large new building in the favor of Russia that the remaining great suburb of Charlottenburg). The manu. Powers objected to its terms, and a confactures are various and extensive, in- gress was convened at Berlin in June, cluding steam-engines and other machin- 1878, to consider and modify these terms. ery, brass-founding and various articles The Powers represented were
Great of metal, sewing-machines, paper, cigars, Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, nottery and porcelain, pianos and harmo- Russia and Turkey. uiums, artificial flowers, etc.
In the Berlin, TREATY OF. The Congress of royal iron-foundry busts, statues, bas
Berlin ended in a treaty, signed Berlin
Berlin, iwo occupants.
July 13, 1878, in which the severe terms side slope of a rampart and the scarp of exacted by Russia were modified, but the the ditch. Rumenie, Turkeyaina Europentenek reduced: Bermondsey Chersmond-si Londonbach made independent states, Bulgaria was the Surrey side of the Thames, between made an autonomous but tributary prov- Southwark and Rotherhithe. Has large ince, Eastern Rumelia was granted ad- tan-yards and wharfs. Pop. 125,960. ministrative autonomy, and Bosnia and Bermuda Grass (ber-mū'da), CapriHerzegovina were placed under Austrian
ola dactylon, a administration. Greece gained an acces- grass cultivated in the West Indies, sion of territory and Bessarabia was re- United States, etc., a valuable pasture stored to Russia.
grass in warm climates owing to its refour-wheeled carriage for sistance to the effects of droughts.
Bermudas, or SOMERS ISLANDS, a Berlin, a city of Wisconsin, in Green
Lake and Waushara counties, in the Atlantic Ocean belonging to BritPop. 5000.
ain, and numbering over 300, of which
only a few are inhabited. They occupy Berlin, a thriving city in Coos Co., a space of about 20 miles long and 6 wide,
New Hampshire, 98 miles the total area being 1942 sq. miles. They N. W. of Portland; incorporated in 1890. were first discovered by Juan Bermudez, a It has pulp and paper mills and abundant Spaniard, in 1522; in 1609 Sir George water-power. Pop. 11,780.
Somers, an Englishman, was wrecked Berlin, Onttorion about conmiles whos: the first settlement.
prov. here, and, after his shipwreck, formed
The most considerw. of Toronto, with some manufactures, able are St. George, Bermuda or Long Pop. (1911) 15,600.
Island (with the chief town Hamilton, the Berlin Blue. See Blue.
seat of the governor), Somerset, St. Da
vid's and Ireland. They form an imporBerlin Spirit, filled arfem spipotatoes, An immense iron floating-dock, capable of beets, etc. Berlioz (ber-li-os), HECTOR, a French towed from London to the Bermudas in
1868. The climate is generally healthy composer, born in 1803. Ile forsook medicine to study music at the times visited by yellow fever. Numbers
and delightful, but they have been someParis Conservatoire, where he gained the of persons from the United States and first prize in 1830 with his cantata Sar- Canada now pass the colder months of the danapale. For about
years he studied in Italy, and when on his return are cultivated. The soil, though light, is
year in these islands. About 4000 acres he began to produce his larger works, in general rich and fertile; there is, howhe found himself compelled to take up the pen both in defense of his principles ever, little fresh water except rain-water,
The inhabitants and for his own better maintenance. As cultivate and export potatoes, arrow-root, critic of the Journal des Debats and onions, bananas, tomatoes, etc. Oranges feuilletonist he displayed scarcely less and other fruits are also cultivated. The originality than in his music, his chief military usually stationed here number literary works being the Traité d'Instru- about 1500 men. Bermuda exports great mentation, 1844; Voyage Musical, 1845; quantities of lilies to the United States. Les Soirées d'Orchestre, 1853; and A Pop. in 1911 18,994, of whom 6691 were travers Chant, 1862. His musical works whites. belong to
a town in Switzerland, capital are specially noteworthy for the resource they display in orchestra coloring. The 1848, of the whole Swiss Confederation, more important are, Harold en Italie; stands on the declivity of a hill washed on Episode de la Vie d'un Artiste, and Le three sides by the Aar. The principal Retour à la Vie; Romeo and Juliette, street is wide and adorned with arcades 1834; Damnation de Faust, 1846; the and curious fountains; the houses generoperas. Benvenuto Cellini, Beatrice and ally are substantially. built of stone. Benedict, and Les Troyens; L'Enfance Among the public buildings are the great du Christ, and the Te Deum. He married Gothic cathedral, built between 1421 and an English actress, Miss Smithson, but 1502, and restored in 1887; the federallater lived apart from her. He died in council buildings; the old fortifications, 1869. After his death appeared Mé- commanding a splendid view of the Alps; moires written by himself.
the university; the town-house, a Gothic Berm,
in fortification, a level space a edifice of the fifteenth century; the mint, few feet wide between the out- etc. Bern has an academy and several
literary societies, and an excellent public the crown ; but Bernadotte, retaining his library. Trade and commerce lively ; man- position as crown-prince, became King of ufactures : woolens, linens, silk stuffs, Sweden on the death of Charles XIII in stockings, watches, clocks, toys, etc. Few 1818, under the title of Charles XIV. cities have finer promenades, and the en. During his reign agriculture and comvirons are very picturesque. Bern be- merce made great advances, and many came a free city of the empire in 1218. important public works were completed. In 1353 it entered the Swiss Confederacy. He died 8th March, 1844, and was sucPop. 80,095.—The canton of Bern has an ceeded by his son Oscar. area of 2657 square miles. The northern Bernard (ber-när), CHARLES DE part belongs to the Jura mountain system,
French novelist of the school the southern to the Alps; between these of Balzac, born in 1804; died in 1850. being an elevated undulating region where His best works were : Le Gerfaut, 1838; is situated the Emmenthal, one of the La Peau du Lion, 1841 ; and Le Gentilrichest and most fertile valleys in Switzer- homme Campagnard, 1847. Many of his land. The southern part of the canton earlier works, however, are also widely forms the Bernese Oberland (Upperland). known, especially the Næud Gordien. He The lower valleys here are fertile and also wrote poems and dramatic pieces. agreeable; higher up are excellent Alpine Bernardo (ber-när), CLAUDE, a French pastures; and above them rise the highest
physiologist, born in 1813; inountains of Switzerland (Finsteraar- studied at Paris; held in succession chairs horn, Schreckhorn, Wetterhorn, Eiger, of physiology in the Faculty of Sciences, and Jungfrau). The canton is drained by the College of France, and the Museum, the Aar and its tributaries; the chief and died at Paris in 1878. Amongst his lakes are those of Brienz, Thun, and many works may be cited his Researches Bienne. Of the surface over 58 per cent on the Functions of the Pancreas, 1849, is under cultivation or pasture. Agricul- and Researches on the Sympathetic Systure and cattle-rearing are the chief occu- tem, 1852. pations :: manufactures embrace linen, Bernard (běr’närd), EDWARD, English etc. Bienne and Thun are the chief towns 1697. He was Savilian professor of asafter Bern. Pop. 642,215, six-sevenths tronomy at Oxford 1673-91. peing Germans and a still larger propor- Bernard (bër närd), SIR FRANCIS, Cation Protestant.
lonial governor, born in 1714, Bernadotte (ber-nå-dot), JEAN BAP- in nd; died there 1779. In 1758
TISTE JULES, a French he was appointed governor of New Jersey, general, afterwards raised to the Swedish and transferred to Massachusetts in 1760, throne, was the son of an advocate of where he made himself unpopular among Pau, born in 1763. He enlisted at seven- the Colonists by his support of all measteen, became sergeant-major in 1789, and ures obnoxious to the Colonists. When subaltern in 1790. In 1794 he was ap- he left Boston on his recall to England, pointed a general of division, and distin- as a token of the rejoicing of the people, guished himself greatly in the campaign bells were rung, cannon were fired and the in Germany, and on the Rhine. In 1798. Liberty-tree' was hung with flags. he married Mademoiselle Clary: sister-in- Bernard (ber-när), Simon, military .
in France ing year he was for a short time minister He came to the United States in 1824 of war, and on the establishment of the with Lafayette. While chief engineer of empire was raised to the dignity of mar- the United States army he built Fort shal of France, with the title of Prince of Monroe, and had a part in the construcPonte-Corvo. In 1810, partly on account tion of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal of his great popularity, the heir appar, and the Delaware Breakwater. ency to the Swedishonce Worwashiered. Bernard, GREATOST, in celebrated. Alcepted with the consent of the emperor, canton Valais, on the mountain-road leadwent to Sweden, abjured Catholicism, and ing from Martigny in Switzerland to took the title of Prince Charles John. In Aosta in Piedmont, and rising to a height the maintenance of the interests of of 8150 feet. Almost on the very crest of Sweden a serious rupture occurred be- the pass is the famous Hospice. The tween him and Bonaparte, followed in buildings are substantially built of stone 1812 by his joining the coalition of sover and are capable of accommodating seventy eigns against Napoleon. At the battle of or eighty travelers with beds, and of
ipsiche contributed effectually to the sheltering 300, and is tenanted by a numvictory of the allies. At the close of the ber of brethren of the order of St. Auguswar strenuous attempts were made by the tine. The hospice is connected with a staEmperor of Austria and other sovereigns tion in the valley below, from which the to restore the family of Gustavus IV to monks are warned by telephone when