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college A lawsuit, which lasted more made prisoner while fighting for the Polthan twenty years, was decided against ish Confederacy. Exiled to Kamchatka, him, but his opponents were unable to he gained the affections of the governor's carry out the sentence depriving him of daughter, who assisted him to escape with his mastership. In 1711 he published an his companions in 1771. They visited edition of Horace and in 1713 his remarks Japan, Macao, etc., and then went to on Collins's Discourse on Free-thinking, France. The French government having by Phileleutherus Lipsiensis. He was ap- requested him to form a colony in Madapointed regius professor of divinity in gascar he sailed thither, and was made 1716. In 1726 he published an edition of king in 1776 by the native chiefs. He Terence and Phædrus. He meditated an broke with the French government, sought edition of Homer, but left only notes. In private aid in England and America, Homeric criticism he has the merit of sailed again to Madagascar in 1785, and having detected the loss of the letter was killed fighting against the French

digamma' (which see) from the written in 1786. His memoirs were published in texts. His last work was an edition of 1790. Milton's Paradise Lost, with conjectural

Benzerta. emendations (1732). He died in 1742.

See Bizerta. Benton (ben'tun), Thomas Hart, a statesman, born in or near

Benzene (ben’zēn; C.H.), an aromatic

liquid hydrocarbon, discovered Hillsborough, North Carolina, in 1782; 1825 by Faraday, and obtained from died at Washington, in 1858. Studying coal-tar and petroleum. It may also be law in Tennessee, he began practice at got by distilling 1 part of crystallized Nashville about 1811, and while serving benzoic acid intimately mixed with 3 parts as a soldier under General Jackson, in of slaked lime. It is thin, strongly re1812, had a quarrel which led to a duel fractive, and quite colorless, of a peculiar, in which Jackson was severely wounded. ethereal, agreeable odor, and boils at 80° He became editor of a political paper in C. It is used by manufacturers of India St. Louis, 1815 ; was elected U. S. Sena- rubber and gutta-percha on account of tor from Missouri in 1820, and remained its great solvent powers, in the preparain the Senate until 1851. As such he tion of varnishes, and for cleaning gloves, supported Presidents Jackson and Van removing grease-spots from woolen and Buren, and opposed Calhoun on the sub- other cloths, etc., on account of its power ject of nullification. He was elected a of dissolving fats and resins. It is highly member of the House in 1852 and opposed inflammable and explosive, even the vapor the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. catching fire if it comes in contact with In 1856 he was a candidate for the gov- a flame. ernorship of Missouri. He published a Benzoic Acid (ben-zö’ik; C.O), voluminous and valuable work entitled,

an organic acid ob A Thirty Years' View, or a History of tained from benzoin and other resins and the Working of the American Government balsams, as those of Peru and Tolu, and for Thirty Years, also An Abridgment of benzene. It forms light, feathery, colorthe Debates of Congress from 1789 to less needles; tastes pungent and bitterish; 1856.

odor slightly aromatic. It is used for Ben'ton Harbor, & city of Berrien medicinal purposes. » County, Michigan, Benzoic Ether, liquid, with

a feeble

oily near Lake Michigan, with canal connection. It is the shipping point of a great aromatic smell and a pungent aro atic fruit region, and has important manu- taste, obtained by distilling together 4 factures. There are numerous mineral parts alcohol, 2 of crystallized benzoic springs in its vicinity. Pop. 9185. acid, and 1 of concentrated hydrochloric Benué, 'mother of waters'), a river of Benzoin (ben’zo-in,

ben'zoin; Ar. Africa the greatest tributary of the Niger,

luban jawi, Javanese inwhich it enters from the east about 250 cense'), a solid, brittle, vegetable submiles above its mouth. Dr. Barth came stance, the concrete resinous juice flowing upon the river in 1851, and its course from incisions in the stem or branches of was partly traced by Dr. W. Balfour the Styrar benzoin, a tree 70 or 80 feet Baikie, but its source was only reached high, nat. order Styracaceæ.

In com(by Flegel) in 1883. This lies near lat. merce several varieties are distinguished, 8° N. and lon. 14° E.

of which the yellow, the Siam, the amyg. Benyowsky (ben:icov'ski).

MAURICE daloidal—the last containing whitish tears born in Hungary in 1741 ; served in the are the finest. It is imported from Siam, Seven Years' war; and in 1769 was Singapore, Bombay, and occasionally from



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Calcutta; it is found also in South Amer. Béranger (bā-rän:zhā). PIERRE JEAN

, a principal substances, viz., a resin, and an lyric poet, born in Paris 1780. His father acid termed benzoic (which see). It has was a restless and scheming man, and little taste, but its smell is fragrant when young Béranger, after witnessing from rubbed or heated, and it is used as in- the roof of his school the destruction of cense in the Greek and Roman Catholic the Bastille, was placed under the charge

of an aunt who kept a tavern at Peronne. At the age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a printer in Peronne, but was ultimately summoned to Paris to assist his father in his financing and plotting. After many hardships he withdrew in disgust from that atmosphere of chicanery and intrigue in which he found himself involved, betook himself to a garret, did what literary hack-work he could, and made many ambitious attempts in poetry and drama. Reduced to extremity, he applied in 1804 to Lucien Bonaparte for assistance, and succeeded in obtaining from him, first, a pension of 1000 francs, and five years later a university clerkship.

Although as yet unprinted, many of his Benzoin Tree (Styrax benzoin). churches. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, in which form it is used as a cosmetic, a perfume, and in pharmacy. Benzoin may be produced by the contact of alkalies with the commercial oil of bitter almonds. It is also known as benjamin or gum benjamin. Benzole (-zol). Same as Benzene. Benzoline (ben'ző-lên),

name of liquids of the same kind as benzene. Beowulf (bē'o-wylf), an Anglo-Saxon

epic, the only existing MS. of which belongs to the eighth or ninth century, and is in the Cottonian Library (British Museum). From internal evi

Béranger. dence it is concluded that the poem in its songs had become extremely popular, and essentials existed prior to the Anglo- in 1815 the first collection of them was Saxon colonization of Britain, and that published. A second collection, published it must be regarded either as brought to in 1821, made him obnoxious to the BourBritain by the Teutonic invaders, or as bon government, and in addition to being an early Anglo-Saxon translation of a dismissed from his office in the university Danish legend. From the allusions in it he was sentenced to three months' imto Christianity, however, it must have prisonment and a fine of 500 francs. A received considerable modifications from third collection appeared in 1825, and in its original form. It recounts the adven. 1828 a fourth, which subjected him to a tures of the hero Beowulf, especially his second state prosecution, an imprisondelivery of the Danish kingdom from the ment of nine months, and a fine of 1100 monster Grendel and his equally formid- francs. In 1833 he published his fifth able mother, and, finally, the slaughter by and last collection, thereafter remaining Beowulf of a fiery dragon, and his death silent till his death. Shortly after the from wounds received in the conflict. revolution of February, 1848, he was The character of the hero is attractive elected representative of the department through its noble simplicity and disre- of the Seine in the constituent assembly, gard of self. The poem, which is the but sent in his resignation in the month longest and most important in Anglo- of May of same year. He died at Paris Saxon literature, is in many points ob- on July 16, 1857. From first to last he scure, and the MS. is somewhat imper- kept in sympathetic touch with the French fect.

people in all their humors, social and Berar



political, influencing men in the mass Kabyles in Algeria and Tunis; and more than any lyric poet of modern times. fourth, the Berbers of the Sahara, who In private life he was the most amiable inhabit the cases. Among the Sahara and benevolent of men, living unobtru- Berbers the most remarkable are the sively with his old friend Judith Frère, Beni-Mzâb and the Tuaregs. They are who died a few months before him.

believed to represent the ancient MauriBerar (bā-rar'), otherwise known as tanians, Numidians, Gætulians, etc.

the Hyderabad Assigned. Dis- Berbice (ber-bēs'), a district of Brittricts, a commissionership of India, in the

ish Guiana watered by the Deccan, area, 17,711 square miles, con- river Berbice, and containing the town of sisting chiefly of an elevated valley at the Berbice or New Amsterdam, which has head of a chain of ghauts. It is watered three churches and several public buildby several affluents of the Godavari and ings. by the Tapti, and has a fertile soil, pro- Berchta (berh'tä ; i. e., Bertha), in ducing some of the best cotton, millet, and

the folk-lore of S. Germany, wheat crops in India. The two principal a sort of female hobgoblin of whom naughty towns of Berar are Amráoti (pop. 35,000) children are much afraid. Her name is and Ellichpur (26,000).. Coal and iron- connected with the word bright, and origorc are both found in the province, the inally she was regarded as a goddess of pop. of which is 2,750,000. Berar was benign influence. assigned by the Nizam to the British gov: Berchtesgaden (berh'tessä-dėn), a due. The old Kingdom of Berar was varia, on the Achen or Alben in a beautimuch more extensive.

ful situation, with a royal palace and Berat (ber-at'), a fortified town in yilla, an ancient church, etc. There are

the principality of Albania, important salt-mines in the neighborhood, situated about 30 miles northeast of the and the people are also renowned for port of Avlona. It produces grain, oil artistic carvings in wood. Pop. 10,046. and wine in abundance. Pop. 15,000. Berdiansk (bér-di-ansk'), a seaport Berber, a town on the right bank of

of Southern Russia, gov. the Nile, in the Egyptian of Taurida, on the north shore of the Sea Soudan, about 20 miles below the conflu- of Azof, with an important export and ence of the Atbara, an important station inland trade. Pop. 29,168. for merchants on the route from Sennaar Berdichef (ber-dé'chef; Pol. Berdyand Khartoum to Cairo, and also from

czew), a city of European Suakim. Pop. 10,000.

Russia, gov. of Kiev, with broad streets, Berbera (ber'be-ra), the chief seaport well-built houses, numerous industrial es

and trading place of British tablishments, and a very large trade, havSomaliland, East Africa, on a bay afford- ing largely attended fairs. Pop. 53,728, ing convenient anchorage in the Gulf of chiefly Jews. Aden. An important fair, which lasts for Berea College, stitutionca innaken

a coeducational insome months, is held here, increasing the population from 10,000 to about 30,000. tucky on the edge of the Cumberland It came into British possession in 1885. Mountains. In 1916 the students enrolled Berberin (ber’be-rin), a golden-yellow in the five departments numbered 1350. coloring matter obtained Bereans

(ber-ē'ans; Barclayans, from several species of Berberis or bar

from their founder, Barclay), berry.

an insignificant sect of dissenters from Berberis (ber'be-ris), a

genus of the Church of Scotland, who profess to plants, type of the nat. follow the ancient Bereans (see Acts, order Berberidacea oro barberries. See xvii, 10-13) in building their faith and Barberry.

practice upon the Scriptures alone, withBerbers,

a people spread over nearly out regard to any human authority what

the whole of Northern Af- ever. rica, from whom the name Barbary. is Berengarius

(be-ren-gā'ri - us) derived. The chief branches into which

Tours, born 998 at the Berbers are divided are, first, the Tours, a teacher in the philosophical Amazirgh or Amazigh, of Northern Mo- school in that city, and in 1040 Archrocco, though for the most part quite in- deacon of Angers; renowned for his philodependent of the Sultan of Morocco, liv- sophical acuteness as one of the scholastic ing partly under chieftains and hereditary writers, and also for the boldness with princes and partly in small republican which, in 1050, he declared himself against communities. Second, the Shuluh, Shil- the doctrine of transubstantiation, and for looh, or Shellakah, who inhabit the south his consequent persecutions. He was sevof Morocco. They are more highly civil- eral times compelled to recant, but always ized than the Amazirgh. Third, the returned to the same opinions, until he





was compelled, in 1080, by the opposition of Great Britain; it stirred up the govof Lafranc, to retire to the Isle of St. ernment and led to the formation of the Cosmas, gear Tours, where he died in British Naval War Staff. Author of Life 1088. This Berengarius must not be con- of Nelson, The Break-up of China, The founded with Peter Berenger of Poitiers, Betrayal, etc. who wrote a defense of his instructor Beresford (ber'es - ford),

WILLIAM Abelard.

CARR, VISCOUNT, a distinBerenice (ber-e-ni'sē), 'bringer of guished commander, a natural son of the

victory', the name of sev- first Marquis of Waterford; born in 1768. eral distinguished women of antiquity; in He entered the army, lost an eye in Nova particular the wife of Ptolemy Euergētes, Scotia, served at Toulon, and in Corsica, King of Egypt. When her husband went the West Indies, and Egypt. In 1806, as to war in Syria she made a vow to devote brigadier-general, he commanded the land her beautiful hair to the gods if he re- force in the expedition to Buenos Ayres ; turned safe. She accordingly hung it in and in 1808 remodeled the Portuguese the temple of Venus, from which it disap- army, receiving in return the titles Marpeared, and was said to have been trans- shal of Portugal, Duke of Elvas, and ferred to the skies as the constellation Marquis of Santo Campo. He was subseComa Berenices. Also the daughter of quently engaged at Badajoz, Salamanca, Agrippa I, King of Judah, 37-44 A. DVittoria, and Bayonne, and for his bravery During the Roman occupation she is said at the battle of Toulouse was raised to to have won a promise of marriage from the peerage with the title of Baron Titus, never fulfilled.

(Viscount, 1823) Beresford. He died in Berenice (ber-e-ni'sē), anciently a 1854.

town on the Egyptian coast Beretta. of the Red Sea, a place of great trade.

See Biretta. Berenson, BERNHARD, author and art Berezina (ber-ez'i-na), BERESINA, a critic, was born at Wilma,

tributary of the Dnieper, Russia, in 1865; came to the United in the Russian province of Minsk, renStates with his parents and was educated dered famous by the disastrous passage of at the Boston Latin School and Harvard the French army under Napoleon during University. He graduated in 1887 and the retreat from Moscow, Nov. 27-29, went to Italy to study Italian painting. 1812. He became an authority on the subject Berezov (ber-yoz'ov), a town in West: and contributed many articles to the art

ern Siberia, government of journals of Italy, Germany and France. Tobolsk, on a branch of the Obi, the enAmong his published works are: Venetian trepôt of a large fur and skin district. Painters of the Renaissance, Lorenzo Pop., chiefly Cossack, 1073. Lotto Florentine Painters, Central Ital. Berg, an ancient duchy of Germany, Franciscan Legend.

governments Arnsberg, Cologne, and Düs. Beresford,


DE LA POER, British naval Bergama (berrgå-má; ancient per officer and parliamentarian, son of Rev. John, fourth Marquess of Waterford ; born in Asia, north of Smyrna; contains fine in the county of Waterford, Ireland, in ruins of a Roman palace, etc. Pop. est. 1846. He commanded the Condor which from 6000 to 20,000. bombarded Alexandria in 1882, and fol. Bergamo

(ber'ga-mo), town of lowing the bombardment he instituted a

North Italy, capital of the regular police system in Egypt. He Province of Bergamo. Pop. 26,660. The served with Lord Wolseley on the Nile comic characters in the Italian masked Expedition, 1884-85, and was in command comedy are Bergamese, or affect the Berof the naval brigade at Abu Klea, Abu gamese dialect. Kr; and Metemmebaite

He became reari Bergamot (ber'ga-mot), a fruit-free, 1900; commanded the Channel Squadron, genus Citrus, variously classed with the 1903-05 ; was promoted to Admiral in orange, Citrus aurantium, the lime, 1906. From 1905 to 1909 he was com- Citrus limetta, or made a distinct species mander-in-chief of the Mediterranean as Citrus bergamia. It is probably of and Channel fleets. He retired in 1911. Eastern origin, though now grown in S. He served as Member of Parliament for Europe, and bears a pale-yellow pearWaterford from 1874 to 1880; East shaped fruit with a fragrant and slightly Marylebone, from 1885 to 1890; York, acid pulp. Its essential oil is in high 1897 to 1900; Woolwich, 1902. In his esteem as a perfume.Bergamot is also book, The Betrayal, he was outspoken in a name given to a number of different condemnation of the shipbuilding policy pears. The name is commonly used for

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the mint Monarda fistulosa, because of wine of the Dordogne district, sometimes its odor.

termed in France petit champagne. Pop. Bergedorf

(ber'gheh-dorf), a town 10,545.

in the territory Hamburg, 10 miles E. S. E. of the city of

of Bergh (burg), HENBY, humanitarian,

was born in New York in 1823. Hamburg. Pop. 23,728.

Becoming interested in the treatment of Bergen (bergen), a sea port on the w; domestic animals, he succeeded, in 1866,

coast of Norway, the second in having incorporated the American town of the kingdom, about 25 miles Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to from the open sea, on a bay of the By- Animals. The humane work successfully fiord, which forms a safe harbor, shut carried on by Mr. Bergh soon enlisted in by hills which encircle the town on the sympathies of women, and among his the land side, and promote perpetual ablest assistants and

generous rains. It has a very mild climate for its donors were ladies moving in the highest latitude. The town is well built, but social circles in New York and elsewhere. has many narrow streets, and houses He died in 1888. mostly of woodcje with cathedral, museum Berghaus (berh’house), Heinrich, a The trade ,

1797, died 1884. He served in 1815 in the German army in France,

and from 1816 to 1821 employed in a trigonometrical survey of Prussia under the war department. From 1824 to 1855 he was professor of applied mathematics in the Berlin Academy of Architect

Besides his

various maps and AMAS

his great Physical Atlas, he published Allgemeine Länderund-Völkerkunde (6 vols.), 1837-41; Die Völker des Erd

balls (2 vols.), Bergen, from the Northwest.

1852; Grundlinien

der physikalischen train-oil, cod-liver oil, hides, and dried Erdbeschreibung, 1856 ; Grundlinien der fish, being exported. Pop. 72,179.

Ethnographie, 1856 ; Deutschland seit Bergen-op-zoom

(ber'gen-op-zom), hundert Jahren (5 vols.), 1859–62; Was

a town, Holland, man von der Erde Weiss (4 vols.), in a marshy situation on the Scheldt, 20 1856-60; Sprachschatz der Sassen, or miles n. N. w. of Antwerp. Pop. 13,668. Low German dictionary (left incomBerger, elected to "Congress (1911), Berghem painter, born at Harlem in VICTOR L., first Socialist plete), etc.

(A , was born at Nieder Rebbuch, AustroHungary, 1860, emigrated to America, 1624, pupil of his father, Peter Klaas, and after working at various trades be- and also of Van Goyen and the elder came editor of a Socialist paper in Mil- Weenix. He produced a large number of waukee. He was elected to the Sixty- works, chiefly landscapes with cattle, of second Congress (1911-13) from the Fifth which eleven are in the Louvre, eighteen Wisconsin district. Ran for Senator in at St. Petersburg, etc. He died at 1918, but was defeated. He was arrested Harlem, 1683. Dujardin was among his under the Espionage Act, charged with at- pupils. tempting to interfere with the operation Bergk (berk), THEODORE. a German Bergerac (bārzh-rák), a town of the died 1881. He was successively professor dogne, France. It gives its name to the later resided' at Bonn." He rendered most



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