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With the exception of the Degrees of Doctor of Divinity and Doctor of Laws, which are bestowed honoris causâ tantum, all the Degrees are conferred only after examination.

The granting of the Honorary Degrees of Doctor of Divinity and Doctor of Laws is regulated by Ordinance of the Universities' Commissioners No. 41 (General No. 13 — Honorary Degrees). Two Committees are annually appointed by the Senatus, whose duty it is to select persons to be recommended to the Senatus for the respective Degrees. The Ordinance provides that the Committees shall not entertain applications from or on behalf of persons desirous of receiving the Degrees. The recommendations of each Committee are embodied in reasoned Reports which are submitted to the Senatus.

GRADUATION CEREMONIAL AND ACADEMIC COSTUME. The ceremony of Graduation takes place at two terms in the year-in the beginning of April and of July respectively.

Those who are to receive Degrees are required to wear the Black Stuff Graduate's gown and to be provided with a Trencher cap and the Hood of their Degree. Graduands already holding a degree are not permitted to present themselves wearing the Hood of that Degree. The Hoods for the different Degrees are as follows:

M.A.-Black Silk, lined with White Silk.
D.Litt.-

Scarlet Cloth, lined with White Silk.
D.Phil.--
B.Sc.-Black Silk, lined with Green Silk.
B.Sc. Agr.-Black Silk, edged with Green Silk.
B.Sc For.- Black Silk with waved Green Silk edging.
D.Sc.-Scarlet Cloth, lined with Green Silk.
B.D.--Black Silk, lined with Purple Silk.
D.D.-Scarlet Cloth, lined with Purple Silk.
B.L.-Black Silk, edged with pale Blue Silk.
LL.B.-Black Silk, lined with pale Blue Silk.
LL.D.-Scarlet Cloth, lined with pale Blue Silk.
M.B.
Ch.B.

----Black Silk, lined with Crimson Silk.
M.D.-Scarlet Cloth, lined with Crimson Silk.
Ch.M.-White Silk, lined with Crimson Silk.
Ed.B. --Black Silk edged with White Silk.

B.Com.---Black Silk edged with Lilac Silk. For full dress, doctors wear gowns of scarlet cloth with silk facings of the colour peculiar to their Degrees --White, Green, Purple, Pale Blue, or Crimson. With these, no Hoods are required, and, instead of the ordinary Trenchers, Black Velvet Caps of the “John Knox” style are worn.

EXAMINERS.

I. FOR DEGREES.

The Examiners for Graduation in ets, Science, and Medicine are the Professors whose subjects qualify for Graduation in those Faculties respectively, together with such Lecturers in the University and such additional Examiners appointed by the University Court, as the Court may deem necessary.

The Examiners for Graduation in Divinity and Law are the Professors or Lecturers on the subjects included in the respective Examinations, and additional Examiners appointed by the University Court.

The University Court appoints two Committees for advising as to suitable nominees for Examinerships as they fall vacant, one dealing with the Examinerships in Arts, Divinity and Law, and the other with Examinerships in Science and Medicine. As a rule the new appointments are made at the July meeting of the Court.

Formerly no person was eligible for appointment as an additional Examiner, who was a Professor, Lecturer, or University Assistant or Demonstrator in any other Scottish University but this disqualification has now been removed.

II. FOR PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS.

By General Ordinance of the four Scottish University Courts No. 3 (Regulations as to admission to the Scottish Universities for

3 purposes of graduation), which came into force on 31st December, 1918, the Regulations relating to the Preliminary Examination were altered, and a new Entrance Board was constituted, consisting of sixteen members appointed by the four Universities.

Under the former system, the University Court of each University annually appointed as Examiners, such number of Professors or Lecturers in the Faculty of Arts in that University, and such Additional Examiners, as might be deemed necessary. The Examiners in each University examine the candidates who present themselves at the Preliminary Examinations in Arts, Science and Medicine of that University, and prepare, set, and mark the Examination papers.

In the meantime, for the years 1919 and 1920, these provisions regarding Examiners continue in force.

For the provisions of the new Ordinance, see p. 160.

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GIFFORD LECTURESHIP.
Lecturers--1889-91 Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., Oxford.

1891-93 Principal A. M. Fairbairn, D.D., Mansfield College, Oxford.
1895-97 James Ward, D.Sc., LL.D., Trinity College, Cambridge.
1898-1900 Prof. Josiah Royce, Ph.D., Harvard University, U.S.A.
1900-02 Prof. Arch. H. Šayce, D.D., I.L.D., Oxford University.
1904-06 James Adam, M.A., LL.D., Cambridge University.
1907-09 Hans Driesch, Ph.D., Heidelberg.
1909-11 Prof. William Ridgeway, M.A., D.Litt., LL.D., Cam-

bridge University.
1911-13 Prof. A. S. Pringle Pattison, D.C.L., LL.D., Edinburgh

University. 1913-15 Prof. William Ritchie Sorley, Litt.D., LL.D., Cambridge

University. 1917-19 Clement C. J. Webb, M.A., Oxford University. The sum of £20,000 was bequeathed in 1887 by Adam Gifford, one of the Senators of the College of Justice, Edinburgh, for the purpose of founding a Lectureship on Natural Religion. In the testamentary deed executed by Lord Gifford the purpose is more particularly declared to be-* Promoting, Advancing, Teaching, and Diffusing the study of Natural Theology,” in the widest sense of that term ; in other words—“ The Knowledge of God, the Infinite, the All, the First and Only Cause, the One and the Sole Substance, the Knowledge of His nature and attributes, the Knowledge of the relations which men and the whole universe bear to Him, the Knowledge of the Nature and Foundation of Ethics or Morals, and of all Obligations and Duties thence arising”. The Lecturers need not belong to any religious denomination, and they sign no test. They are appointed for two years, and may be twice re-appointed for another term of two years. By the deed of Foundation the Senatus is the Patron.

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WILSON TRAVELLING FELLOWSHIP,

By his last Will and Testament, dated 15th May, 1862, Robert Wilson, M.D. (K.C.), 1815, sometime Private Secretary to the Marquis of Hastings, Governor of Malta, and latterly residing, at Glenairnie Cottage, Morayshire, bequeathed the residue of his estate (1) for the endowment of a Travelling Fellowship, to be held by a Graduate in Medicine of the University of Aberdeen for the purpose of exploring certain parts of Asia and Africa particularly described in the Will; and (2) for the formation and extension of a Museum of Antiquities in the University, of which the Testator's collections were to form the nucleus.

The endowment having become partially inoperative and dormant, the Universities Commissioners (1889) issued an Ordin

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ance dealing with the Foundation (No. 106, Aberdeen, No. 14), the provisions of which are as follows :

(1) The trustees of the said Dr. Robert Wilson may appoint to the said Fellowship a Graduate in any Faculty without restriction as to age.

(2) The payment to be made to the said Fellow shall no longer be fixed at sixteen shillings per day, but shall be of such amount as the said trustees may consider proper.

(3) The Fellow shall be appointed for a period of two years, but it shall be in the power of the trustees to reappoint the same Graduate for a further period not exceeding two years.

(4) It shall be the duty of the Fellow to submit to the trustees, for their approval, a statement of the route he intends to follow; and he shall transmit to the Senatus Academicus a report of his researches in such form and at such period as the Senatus may prescribe.

(5) In the event of the trustees finding it at any time to be impossible to make a suitable appointment, it shall be in their power, during the period of vacancy, either to accumulate the income or to apply the same in whole or in part to the purposes of the Archæological Museum in the said University.

FELLOWS.
1896-98 J. G. C. Anderson.
1898-1900 J. G. C. Anderson.
1901-03 William M. Ramsay.
1903-05 William M. Ramsay.
1905-06 John G. Duncan.
1906-08 Thomas Callander.
1909-10 A. Margaret Ramsay.
1911-15 W. M. Calder.

STUDENTS. Students become Members of the University by Matriculation in the Album, which is the legal evidence of their Membership, and is necessary to their being enrolled in any Class. The Album is kept open in each Faculty for fifteen days after the beginning of the Lectures in that Faculty and Matriculation takes place on certain days announced on the College Notice Boards. The Matriculation Fee, for the whole year, is £1 ls, and for the Summer Session alone, 10s. 6d.

By Ordinance No. 147 of the Universities Commissioners it is enacted as follows: “No person shall be deemed to be a Matriculated Student in any University or shall enjoy any of the privileges of a Matriculated Student, unless in addition to paying the Matriculation Fee, he is enrolled as a Student in attendance

STUDENTS' REPRESENTATIVE COUNCIL-UNIVERSITY CHAPEL.

47

in one or more Classes in the University, and has paid the fees entitling him to such attendance; provided that nothing herein contained shall affect the right of the University Court to exact a Fee in lieu of and not exceeding the Matriculation Fee from any candidate for any Examination or for Graduation, not being at the time a Matriculated Student, in addition to the Fee payable for such Examination or Graduation.

BURSARS. Bursars are Students, enjoying, as such, certain pecuniary benefactions in the gift of the University, or by presentation of other public bodies and of private patrons.

Bursars may incur suspension or forfeiture of their Bursaries by misconduct. All Bursars are specially bound to assist by example and co-operation with the Authorities in maintaining order and discipline.

WOMEN STUDENTS. Women are admitted to instruction and graduation in the Uni. versity on the same conditions as men. Certain Competition Bursaries founded prior to 1864 are open to women.

STUDENTS' REPRESENTATIVE COUNCIL. The Students' Representative Council was instituted in 1884 its objects being “to consult the interests of the Students, to be the medium of communication between them and the University Authorities, and to co-operate with the latter on public occasions

The constitution and functions of the Students' Representative Council are regulated by Ordinance No. 60 of the Commissioners under The Universities (Scotland) Act, 1889.

UNIVERSITY CHAPEL. Public worship, at which the students are expected to attend, is conducted each Sunday forenoon throughout the Session in the University Chapel, Old Aberdeen, by one or other of the Professors of Systematic Theology, Church History, or Biblical Criticism (the Murray Lecturers) or other clergymen.

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