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By Act 44 and 45 Victoria, cap. 40, when a Poll is demanded at an election, the votes are given by voting papers issued by the Registrar and returnable to him.

Important changes were introduced by the "Representation of the People Act, 1918" (8 George 5, Cap. 64). The four Scottish Universities now form a constituency returning three Members of Parliament, and the franchise is extended to women graduates who have attained the age of 30 years, and to men graduates on naval or military service who have attained the age of 19.



1868 James Moncreiff, LL. D., Lord Advocate.

1869 Edward S. Gordon, Q.C., LL.D., Dean of the Faculty of Advocates. 1876 William Watson, LL.D., Lord Advocate.

1880 James Alexander Campbell, of Stracathro, P.C., LL.D., re-elected 1885, 1886, 1892, 1895 and 1900.

1906 Sir Henry Craik, K. C.B., M. A., LL.D.





The Rector is elected by the Matriculated Students, divided into four Nations-Mar, Buchan, Moray and Angus, and holds office for three years. Each Nation chooses a Procurator, and the Rector is elected by the Procurators. In the case of an equality in the votes of the Procurators, the Chancellor had formerly the casting vote, and failing him, the Principal; but under the Universities Act of 1889, the election is determined, in case of equality, by the majority of the votes of all the students voting. The election takes place on such day in October or November as may be fixed by the University Court after consultation with the Senatus, and must be not later than the second Saturday in November in any year. The Rector is President of the University Court.

* The MAR Nation consists of all Matriculated Students born within the City of Aberdeen and its neighbourhood (as included in the Parishes of St. Nicholas and Old Machar), and within the Parishes of Banchory-Devenick, Belhelvie, Drumoak, Durris, Dyce, Fintray, Kinnellar, New Machar, Maryculter, Newhills, Nigg, Peterculter, Skene, Cruden, Ellon, Foveran, Logie-Buchan, Methlick, Slains, Tarves, and Udny. The BUCHAN Nation consists of all Matriculated Students born within the County of Banff and within such part of the County of Aberdeen as is not included in the Mar Nation. The MORAY Nation consists of all Matriculated Students born within the Counties of Moray, Nairn, Inverness, Ross, Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness, and Orkney and Shetland. The ANGUS Nation consists of all Matriculated Students not included in any of the other Nations.

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1866 M. E. Grant Duff, M.P., re-elected 1869.

1872 Thomas Henry Huxley, LL.D.

1875 William Edward Forster, M.P., LL.D.

1878 The Earl of Rosebery, LL.D.

1881 Alexander Bain, LL.D., re-elected 1884.

1887 George Joachim Goschen, M.P., LL.D.

1890 The Marquis of Huntly, P.C., LL.D., re-elected 1893 and 1896.

1899 Lord Strathcona, G. C. M.G., LL.D.

1902 Chas. Thomson Ritchie, P.C., M.P., LL.D. (afterwards Lord Ritchie). 1905 Sir Frederick Treves, Bart., G.C.V.O., C.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D.

1908 Herbert Henry Asquith, K.C., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D.

1911 Andrew Carnegie, LL.D.

+1914 The Right Hon. Winston L. Spencer Churchill, P.C., M.P. 1918 VISCOUNT COWDRAY.


The Principal is appointed by the Crown for life. He is the resident Head of the University, and President of the Senatus Academicus. He is, ex officio, a member of the University Court, and, in absence of the Rector, is Chairman of the Court; also a member of the General Council, and, in absence of the Chancellor and the Rector, Chairman of the Council.


1860 Peter Colin Campbell, D.D., died 1876.

1877 Wm. Robinson Pirie, D.D., died 1885.

1885 Sir William Duguid Geddes, LL.D., D.Litt., died 1900. 1900 John Marshall Lang, C.V.O., D.D., LL.D., died 1909. 1909 SIR GEORGE ADAM SMITH, D.D., LL.D., Litt. D., F.B.A.


The Universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen, by the Medical Act of 1858, § 4, were entitled jointly to elect a member of the "General Council of Medical Education and Registration of the United Kingdom ".

By the Medical Act of 1886, § 7, each of the Universities of Scotland became entitled to elect a representative to the General Medical Council. Up to 1890, the representative was elected by the Senatus; but, by the Universities (Scotland) Act, 1889, the power of election was transferred to the University Court. The representative holds office for five years.

The Rector's term of office was extended by one year from November, 1917.

1858 James Syme, Edinburgh, re-elected 1863.

1868 John Macrobin, M.D., Aberdeen.

1873 William Turner, M.B., Edinburgh, re-elected 1878.

1883 John Struthers, M.D., LL. D., Aberdeen, re-elected 1888.
1891 Angus Fraser, M.A., M.D.

1896 Robert William Reid, M.D., F.R.C.S.

1901 David White Finlay, M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P., re-elected 1906.
1911 John Theodore Cash, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., re-elected 1916.


The General Council as constituted by (1) the Scottish Universities Act, 1858 (21 and 22 Vict., chap. 83), (2), the Representation of the People (Scotland) Act, 1868 (31 and 32 Vict., chap. 48), (3), the Universities Election Amendment (Scotland) Act, 1881 (44 and 45 Vict., chap. 40), and (4), the Universities (Scotland) Act, 1889 (52 and 53 Vict., chap. 55) consists of the Chancellor, the Members of the University Court, and the Members of Senatusall ex officio-and of Graduates and Alumni of the University, subject to the conditions aftermentioned.

By the Universities Election Amendment (Scotland) Act, 1881, Section 16, it is enacted that no person shall be allowed after Examination to Graduate at this University until he shall have paid a Registration Fee for enrolment on the General Council, the amount and period of payment of which fee shall be fixed from time to time by the University Court. The Court has fixed the amount at twenty shillings, and that the same be payable immediately after passing the final examination.

The Act further provides that any person who has hitherto been or who shall in future become, ex officio, a Member of the General Council, shall, on payment of a Registration Fee, be put and continued on the Register of Members of the General Council during his life.

No person can be a member of the Council until he has attained the age of 21 years complete. The corrupt payment of any Registration Fee is punishable as Bribery.

The General Council holds two statutory meetings in each year, viz., on the Saturday after the second Tuesday in April and in October. Under the Universities (Scotland) Act, 1889, the Council may also hold special meetings at the instance of the Chancellor, who shall convene such meetings on a requisition from a quorum of members, and the Council may adjourn any meeting, and may appoint committees to investigate into and report upon any matter remitted to them, or to carry out instructions given to them by the Council. Under the same Act, the quorum of the General Council has been fixed by the Commissioners at ten for

every complete thousand, or fraction of a thousand, of members on the register, but this provision does not apply to the statutory half-yearly meetings.

The General Council elects the Chancellor. To the University Court as constituted under the Act of 1858, it elected one Assessor. By the Act of 1889 three have been added, making now four Assessors from the Council. Each Assessor holds office for four years, two retiring biennially. They are eligible for re-election. No member of the Senatus is entitled to vote or take part in the election of any Assessor of the General Council. When a Poll is demanded at an election for the Assessorships, the votes are taken by means of voting letters issued to the Members by the Registrar, and these letters must be returned to him within twenty-one days.

The Council is empowered by the Universities Act of 1858, "to take into consideration all questions affecting the well-being and prosperity of the University, and to make representations from time to time on such questions to the University Court, who shall consider the same, and return to the Council their deliverance thereon ".

The President of the General Council is the Chancellor,-failing whom, the Rector,-failing whom, the Principal,-failing whom, the Chancellor's Assessor,-failing whom the Rector's Assessor,failing whom, a Chairman elected by the meeting; provided that no member of Senatus preside at any meeting held for the purpose of electing Assessors.

The Register of the Council is made up annually in the month of December, for the year beginning the 1st of January next ensuing.

See Appendix A to CALENDAR.


By the Universities Act of 1858, the University Court consisted of six members, and was vested with the following powers:

"1. To review all decisions of the Senatus Academicus, and to be a Court of Appeal from the Senatus in every case, except as otherwise provided in the Universities Act.

"2. To effect improvements in the internal arrangements of the University, after due communication with the Senatus Academicus, and with the sanction of the Chancellor, provided that all such proposed improvements shall be submitted to the University Council for their consideration.

"3. To require due attention on the part of the Professors to Regulations as to the mode of Teaching, and other duties imposed on the Professors. "4. To fix and regulate, from time to time, the fees in the several Classes.

5. Upon sufficient cause shown, and after due investigation, to censure a Principal or Professor, or to suspend him from his office and from the emoluments thereof, in whole or in part, for any period not exceeding one year, or to require him to retire from his office on a retiring allowance, or to deprive him of his office; and during the suspension of any Professor, to make due provision for the teaching of his class: Provided always, that no such sentence of censure, suspension, or deprivation, or requisition on a Professor to retire from office, shall have any effect until it has been approved by Her Majesty in Council.

"6. To inquire into and control the administration by the Senatus Academicus or Principal and Professors of any College, of the revenue, expenditure, and all the pecuniary concerns of the University and of any College therein, including funds mortified for Bursaries and other purposes."

By the Universities Act, of 1889, the Court was enlarged by the presence of additional Assessors from the Senatus Academicus and the General Council, and by the introduction of representatives from the Town Council of Aberdeen. Its powers were also greatly extended, mainly by the transference to it from the Senatus of the administration of the property and revenues of the University. These powers, subject to any Ordinances made by the Commissioners, are thus defined in the Act:"(1.) To administer and manage the whole revenue and property of the University, and the college or colleges thereof existing at the passing of this Act, including the share appropriated to such University out of the annual grant hereinafter mentioned, and also including funds mortified for bursaries and other purposes, and to appoint factors or collectors, to grant leases, to draw rents, and generally to have all the powers necessary for the management and administration of the said revenue and property:


"(2.) To review any decision of the Senatus Academicus on a matter within its competency which may be appealed against by a member of the Senatus, or other member of the University having an interest in the decision, within such time as may be fixed by the Commissioners, and to take into consideration all representations and reports made to it by the Senatus Academicus and by the General Council:

"(3.) To review, on representation made by any of its members, or by any member of the Senatus Academicus, within such time as may be fixed by the Commissioners, any decision which the Senatus Academicus may come to in the exercise of its powers under section seven, sub-section one [i.e., in the regulation and superintendence of the teaching and discipline of the University]: Provided always, that the University Court shall not review any decision of the Senatus Ácademicus in a matter of discipline, except upon appeal taken either by a member of the Senatus or by a member of the University directly affected by such decision:

(4.) To appoint professors whose chairs are, or may come to be, in the patronage of the University; to appoint examiners and lecturers; and to grant recognition to the teaching of any college or individual teacher for the purposes of graduation, under any regulations on the subject laid down by the Commissioners, which regulations after the expiration of their powers may from time to time be modified or altered by the Universities Committee: "(5.) To define on application by any member of the Senatus Academicus the nature and limits of a professor's duties under his commission, subject to appeal to the Universities Committee:

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