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of these according to age at issue is exhibited in the eleventh column of the table; and in the tenth column the corresponding numbers* found from the formula (4), substituting the value of a=13,304 in place of 142,778. The adjacent column of differences shows that there is no systematic deviation below age 55. At ages over 55 the number issued is considerably smaller than that indicated by the formula. This result is referable in great measure, I believe, to the caution exercised in accepting risks upon old lives.

It will not fail to be observed that the same peculiarities of the discordances at particular ages noticed in the English experience, are here more prominently marked.

As a whole the result of the comparison is to strengthen the probability of the prevalence of a general law relative to the ages of applicants for life insurance.

Extract from Lord Neaves's Opening Address as President of Section

F, (Economic Science and Statistics) at the Meeting of the
British Association at Edinburgh, 1871.

DEDUCTIONS FROM THE REGISTRAR'S RETURNS. I FEEL called upon to say that I consider our Registers in Scotland to be, generally speaking, in a most satisfactory state, particularly in the important department of Vital statistics, as to which the reports of the Registrar-General, embodying the reports made to him by Dr. Stark, contain reliable information of the most interesting and important kind. One singular result that seems to have been established by the tables there given is, that at every quinquennial period of life from 20 years of age up to 85, married men die in Scotland at a much lower rate than unmarried men. Sometimes the difference is very great, particularly between 20 and 45, up to which period it approximates to as high a rate as 2 to 1; but after that, the difference, though less, is still very considerably in favour of the married men. The subject is more complicated as regards women, from obvious causes; though here, too, marriage seems to be the more favoured state. As regards both sexes, the advantage on the side of marriage is easily accounted for up to a certain point. Generally speaking, those

* The difference of practice in classification, according to age, at nearest or next anniversary of birthday, does not materially affect the results of the comparison.

who marry are likely as a class to be better lives than those who do not. The unmarried will infallibly include a greater number of sickly or diseased constitutions than the married class. Without professing myself an implicit believer in Darwin, I acknowledge the truth of several of his statements in his “Descent of Man," as to what he calls Sexual selection. As a general rule, the attachments that lead to marriage will be prompted by considerations that are intimately connected with health and strength. Good looks, cheerful tempers, and buoyant constitutions are great attractions, and those who are wholly devoid of these, as well as those who are the victims of positive bad health, will often be excluded from having tickets in the matrimonial lottery. No doubt, causes occur not unfrequently which disturb these natural tendencies. Some of these causes are allowable or laudable, others are the reverse. In a few cases affection leading to marriage may be inspired by great virtue, or great talent, or high accomplishments, though not associated with health or strength. In other cases, connections may be formed that are wholly unconnected with love—as where rank, or wealth, or influence may overcome the natural repugnance excited by deformity or disease. Burns, I think it is, that says

6 Be a lassie ne'er sae black,

If she hae the penny siller,
Set her upon Tintock tap-

The wind will blaw a man till her." Still, as a general rule, both men and women who are married are likely, on an average, to have more health and vitality than those who remain single. As regards the male sex, again, those of them that are of dissolute habits or unsettled and thriftless dispositions, are not so likely to marry as those who are orderly and wellconducted, and in favourable circumstances of life. But after making allowance for these elements, it still appears that the deathrate of married men is at all periods of life lower than that of the unmarried. This can be accounted for only on the footing that marriage is favourable to health, by conducing to regular habits of life, and by giving natural scope to the domestic affections. It cannot be doubted, for instance, that an old man who has a wife to take care of him, will be much better looked after than if he lived alone. It is not necessary in adopting this view, to suppose that the married life is to be wholly free from sorrows, cares, and anxieties. Even these are not always prejudicial to health; and we are, perhaps, the better for them when they are well encountered. Neither is it essential that the matrimonial current should always run a smooth course. Most of us, probably, would agree with the view taken by Paley, who, when an old clergyman at an episcopal dinner asserted that he had been married for forty years, but had never had a difference with his wife, observed quietly to the bishop that "it must have been very flat.” An occasional ripple will occur in all water, unless it be frozen over, and perhaps after marriage, as well as before it, there may be truth in the maxim, “Amantium iræ amoris redintegratio."

In referring to this matter, it has occurred to me to consider whether, if the lower death-rate of married persons is an ascertained fact, this may not partly account for the general success of Life Insurance Offices when well conducted. It is clear that an Office transacting on the usual calculations of mortality, has advantages of various kinds. In particular, its medical examinations, which are a most important part of its constitution, exclude hazardous lives, except, at least, at extra premiums. The rank of life, probably, of parties effecting insurances may also benefit the Office; but if married men are to a certain extent to be considered as selected lives, this also, I should think, must tell in favour of the Office, as I presume that, from family reasons, more married men effect insurances than unmarried men.


[The publication of the Returns under the Life Assurance Companies Act, 1870, will involve some alteration in the manner of presenting the Bonus Reports which we have hitherto pursued. We therefore purpose, in futur

to extract from those Returns certain items of information which are not contained in the Bonus Reports. In particular, we think it will be useful to give the Consolidated Revenue Account, the Summary and Valuation, and the Valuation Balance Sheet, of the Fifth Schedule of the Act, these Returns often showing more clearly than the Bonus Report the manner in which the surplus divided has been arrived at.—ED. J. I. A.] GRESHAM LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY.

Established 1848.

REPORT OF THE ACTUARY On the Society's contracts for Assurances and Annuities in force on the

30th June, 1870. I have examined the registers of the Society, and extracted from them all the data requisite for a valuation. As for the policies on the lives of


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