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the introduction of children a few months old materially affecting the death rate.
In the following table the mortality percent for each year under 5 years of age, and the aggregate mortality under that age out of 100 children born, according to the present observations, are compared with that of various other Life Tables. It should be noticed, in reference to the mortality amongst Clergymen's Children, that the Rev. Mr. Hodgson's statistics embraced only 139 deaths under five years of age, also that the difference in the mortality of Males and Females at age 0 is very much greater than that observable in any other table. The percentages in the column headed “Isle of Thanet" are obtained from Mr. Hodgson's statistics of 1839 Children resident in that part of the County of Kent, referred to in the commencement of this paper.
A glance at the mortality of both sexes combined, in the comparative table, will show how unsuitable the Carlisle and English Life Tables are for the purpose of calculating the premiums for Children's Endowments, to which purpose they are frequently applied.
J 2 3 4
The Table of Mortality, deduced from these observations, has been based upon the combined Male and Female Experience, and the numbers living at ages 4 to 21 inclusive have been adjusted by means of Mr. Woolhouse's method, explained in the Journal of the Institute (vol. xv page 389), the numbers-living at ages 0, 1, 2 and 3 being left untouched. The values of single and annual premiums for Children's Endowments, payable at ages 14 and 21, at 3, 31 and 4 percent interest, have been computed upon the basis of the adjusted table, and will, I trust, be found useful and trustworthy by those who may have occasion to employ them.
TABLE II.-Adjusted Mortality.
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
TABLE I.—Mortality amongst 1653 Children born to 313 Dissenting Ministers residing in Great Britain, embracing 22502 Years
of Life and 378 Deaths, under 30 Years of Age.
TABLE III.-- Children's Endowments.—Nett Single Premiums for
Endowment of 1.
TABLE IV.—Children's Endowments.— Nett Annual Premiums for
Endowment of 1.
05293 05617 05890 ·06541 •0729+ •08189 •09282 10646 •12398 •14734 •18004 .22912 31096 •47473 96614
04881 05187 05465 •06105 06845 .07551 08804 •10150 •11910 •14228 •17476 .22354 •30494 .46786 .95685
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
*03073 ·03172 .03326 03586 03869 .04182 ·04534 •04932 ·05388 ·05914 ·06529 •07257 08132 09205 •10549 •12281 •14595 •17843 .22724 •30877 •47204 .96221
02718 *02818 02969 03214 03488 •03793 •04137 04526 ·04980 ·05497 06105 06822 •07687 08748 •10079 •11796 •14094 •17320 .22172 •30279 •45245 95296
On the Philosophy of Statistics. By W. S. B. WOOLHOUSE, F.R.A.S.
[Reprinted from the “Companion to the Almanac" for the Year 1872.) STATISTICS, generally considered, is a term of very comprehensive import, and is to be understood as having reference to an important collection of facts properly arranged and systematized in the form of numerical tables, for the purpose of conveying such information or data as may best assist in the investigation and discussion of particular subjects of inquiry. The general principles applicable to these investigations are, for the most part, intimately allied with the mathematical theory of probabilities, and constitute the true science of statistics. It will, moreover, be found, on examination, that the same identical principles lie at the foundation of all the physical and inductive sciences so far as they originally and necessarily depend upon experiment and observation.
The word statistics, derived from the Latin, status, signifies a state, condition, or standing. The subject of statistics has, however, by some writers, been unnecessarily restricted to that department of political science which is concerned in collecting and arranging facts illustrative of the condition and resources of a nation. It is chiefly to the advancement and growing importance of political economy that we are indebted for the cultivation of this particular branch of statistics. The fundamental doctrines of that science, which are directly concerned about the prosperity and happiness of mankind, were not reduced to any method or system until the middle of the last century; and since that time political economy has been more assiduously cultivated as an inductive science. The truth of preconceived theories has been practically tested by the observations and analysis of facts; and new principles have been gradually discovered and established by the same means. It therefore becomes the duty of a government to apply all the means in its power in aid of statistics, not only for general information and the administration of the affairs of state, but also for the advancement of political science.
In the report of the third meeting of the British Association it is stated that, in addition to the five then existing sections another, originating with some distinguished philosophers, had come into operation, the object of which was to promote statistical inquiries. The president, Professor Sedgwick, in justification of the addition of this sixth section, furthermore stated, that statistical inquiries may be made compatible with the objects of the British Association, “so far as they have to do with matters of fact, with