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and Stewart would allow themselves to reflect a little on this subject, and, above all, to study and to understand the Phre. nological doctrine, they would be satisfied that this is the case ; -and their system does not and never can afford a complete theory of mind, -as it merely shows the surface of the subject, and leaves the substance untouched. Granting it to be true as far as it goes, it is useless for any practical purpose ; as it never can account for or explain the real movements or elements of any one mind, and far less the characteristic differences which exist between one mind and another.

We next come to a dissertation on the effects of size and activity in the organs, and practical directions for observing development. The effects of size and activity are, in this section, illustrated more fully than in the essays on Phrenology, or in the work of Spurzheim ; and we beg to call the attention of the public to it, as this is a subject on which much misapprehension prevails. Great offence has been taken by some at the supposed doctrine; that because size indicates power, therefore great size of head necessarily implies great power of intellect, and vice versa. It is obvious, that it may or may not do so, according as the intellectual faculties and moral powers have or have not their organs fully or largely developed ; for if this is not the case, even although the head is altogether large, the manifestations may be far inferior to those of a much smaller head, where the higher sentiments and intellect are proportionally better developed. The following observations deserve particularly to be attended to:

That size is a measure of power, is not to be held as impiying, that power is the only, or even the most valuable quality, “ which a mind in all circumstances can possess. To drag ar“tillery over a mountain, or a ponderous car through the streets of London, we would prefer an elephant, or a horse of great “ size and muscular power; while, for graceful motion, agility, “and nimbleness, we would select an Arabian palfrey. In like “ manner, to lead men in gigantic and difficult enterprises,-to “command by native greatness, in perilous times, when law is

trampled under foot,—to call forth the energies of a people " and direct them against a tyrant at home, or an alliance of

tyrants abroad, -to stamp the impress of a single mind upon

“ an age ;-to infuse strength into thoughts, and depth into

feelings, which shall command the homage of enlightened men “ in every period of time ;-in short, to be a Bruce, BUONA

PARTE, LUTHER, Knox, DEMOSTHENES, SHAKSPEARE, or “ Milton, a large brain is indispensably requisite ; but to dis

play skill, enterprise, and fidelity, in the various professions “of civil life ;—to cultivate, with success, the less arduous “ branches of philosophy ;-to excel in acuteness, taste, and feli“city of expression to acquire extensive erudition and refin“ed manners, a brain of a moderate size is perhaps more suit“ able than one that is very large ; for wherever the energy is “ intense, it is rare that delicacy, refinement, and taste are pre“sent in an equal degree. Individuals possessing moderate“sized brains readily find their proper sphere, and enjoy in it

scope for all their energy. In ordinary circumstances, they “ distinguish themselves; but sink when difficulties accumulate “ around them. Persons with large brains, on the other hand, do not easily attain their appropriate place ; common occur

rences do not rouse or call them forth; and, while unknown, "they are not trusted with great undertakings. Often, there“ fore, such men pine and die in obscurity. When, however, “ they attain their proper element, they feel conscious greatness, “ and glory in the expansion of their powers. Their mental “energies rise in proportion to the obstacles to be surmounted, “and blaze forth in all the magnificence of genius, when feebler “minds expire in despair." : The practical directions for observing the organs

will doubtless attract the attention of all who desire to make observations for themselves, and every one ought to do so who studies Phrenology; for we can tell them by experience, that it is the only means of studying it with effect. Nothing makes such an impression upon the mind, as a series of unvarying facts, such as every one meets with, who sets himself duly and earnestly to make observations on natural objects: and the observer will in this way not only confirm his faith at every step, but will constantly meet with facts worthy of his attention, which will gradually open and enlarge his views of the science and of human nature.

We have not time to extend our remarks to the subsequent sections, or combinations in size, and combinations in activity. They are exceedingly good, and to the more advanced student will afford a fund of reflection which he will do well to cultivate : but the subject is too abstruse and difficult to be dismissed in a few sentences, and indeed it can

hardly be made intelligible by any shorter statement than is given in the work itself. It is however one of the most importantif not the most important subject in Phrenology-and is the superstructure to which all the previous parts only serve as the foundation. By means of the combinations, the phrenologist is enabled to trace many, if not all, of the minut. est as well as the broadest shades of character and the darkest as well as the most obvious workings of the human heart, which to former inquirers only presented a labyrinth of inextricable intricacy. By the clue which Phrenology affords we are enabled, with ease and with the most perfect certainty, to thread all the windings of the maze-and to wander through all the obscurest and most tortuous passages without losing our way, This affords a proof by itself that the system is true, which is found to be so minutely in accordance with nature, and to explain so easily her most important secrets.

A section on Materialism follows, of which we need say nothing, as it has been already published in our First Number, and our readers have had an opportunity of judging of its merits.

The last section contains an account of the different classifications and numerations of the organs adopted by different Phrenologists,--and particularly a statement of the arrangement of Dr Gall, who, as is known, has not yet adopted several of the organs, the functions of which have been discovered by Dr Spurzheim. Some variations, it is also mentioned, have been made by Dr Spurzheim himself upon his own enumeration, which, for reasons which appear to us quite satisfactory, Mr Combe bas for the present declined adopting

The book concludes with the description of a craniometer, or instrument for taking the dimensions of the organs with greater accuracy than the common callipers and a plate is given containing a representation of the instrument.

Upon the whole, we can safely recommend this little work as the best compendium of Phrenology within a moderate

compass which has yet appeared—and we congratulate the author on the successful manner in which he has contrived to communicate so much useful information in so small a space. The work is neatly printed ; and, as a book, is, we may inform our readers, remarkably cheap, as the same quantity of letter-press, on such a type, is not easily afforded under 6s.

or 7s.

We may mention, that we have just seen a copy of the American edition of Mr Combe's Essays on Phrenology, published at Philadelphia in 1822, by Dr John Bell, and dedicated to Dr P. S. Physick, president of the Phrenological Society of that city, a gentleman whose medical and literary reputation is well known in Europe. The volume is printed in a respectable form, and contains, besides the Essays, a preface and introduction by the editor, together with an abstract of the anatomical parts of Dr Spurzheim's works, which are not so fully given by Mr Combe. The appearance of this volume, re-printed in so remote a quarter, certainly presents some encouraging views with regard to the spreading of the science of Phrenology.

ARTICLE XVIII.

OUTLINES OF PHRENOLOGY. London, printed for J. DE

Ville, 367, Strand, 1824, pp. 123. We embrace this opportunity of expressing our high opinion of M. De Ville's exertion in promoting the cause of Phrenology. At a considerable expense, both of money and personal exertion, he has formed a large and valuable collection of casts, not only of heads and skulls, generally accessible, but of busts of eminent private individuals, not easily to be come at in any other quarter. His liberality in affording access to the collection to the public is equally deserving of our approbation. We know, from personal observation, that he devotes no small portion of time to the exhibition of it; and that he is eminently zealous to communicate all the informa

tion which he possesses on the subject. He enables the friends of Phrenology to refer all inquirers to a great and valuable mass of evidence of its truth, and affords the means of instruction to all who are desirous to obtain it. For these services, M. De Ville merits the esteem of every Pbrenolo gist.

We regret that we cannot extend this commendation to the little work, the title of which is prefixed to this article, published by him as an accompaniment to his busts. He appears unfortunately to have intrusted the compilation and editing of it to some person not possessed of information and ability, adequate to do justice to the subject. It is composed chiefly of extracts from the works of Dr Spurzheim and Mr Combe, and from the Phrenological Transactions, and they are neither skilfully put together, nor accurately copied; so that an incorrect view is given of the science. It is our duty to watch over all phrenological doctrine, and to maintain its philosophical purity ;- not that we desire to erect Drs Gall and Spurzheim, or any other individual, into standards whom all must follow; but that we are bound to see that their views are not mis-stated or misrepresented through mere ignorance or negligence. A few extracts will shew the imperfections of the present Outlines.

The following sentence is original composition, and is rather a favourable specimen of the compiler's taste and powers of expression :-" In these outlines and introduction “ to the study of Phrenology, its objects are to point out, by “ the numbers on the bust, the different organs, and the situa“ tion of them; and also to give short illustrations, tending to

give the powers and manifestations of their different functions, as much as can be given, in 'so small a publication, of the dif“ ferent faculties.” P. 7. Afterwards we are informed, that “ Dr Spurzheim, in his · Observations sur Phrænologie, Paris “ 1818, has made a new arrangement of his order of the mem“ bers and the special faculties, by dividing them in a more

philosophical form and arrangement ; although the nomenclature of the number is altered, the names of the organs are the

same. To those who have given the science any considera“ tion, they will meet with no difficulty ; it being thought ad“ visable to follow his new classification of the numbers and fa“ culties as soon after him as possible.” P. 10.

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