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presented to the Society by Dr Oswald. He also read a letter from Monsieur A. A. Royer of Paris, announcing a donation of two boxes, containing as under.* Mr W. A. F.

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• CONTENTS OF THE BOX No I. No Casts of the Heads of

No Casts of the Heads of 2 Le Chevalier de Lyon

murderers

15 Madame Carter, suicide 3 Boutillier

16 Chapotelle, mechanician 4 Charles Dautun, fratricide

17 Horace Vernet, painter and artist 5 Charles Le Normand

18 Legouvé, poet 6 Houster

-murderers 20 Brain of an Idiot 7 Guichet

22:Portion of the brain of Deville the 9 Martin, parricide

poet 10 Pretrel, incendiary

24 Skull of an Ourang-ou-tang 11 Lecouffe

| murder. 26 Baron Destassart (Prefet) 12 The mother of Lecouffe ) ers 27 M•K—, a young Englishman 13 Feldman, executed for rape and deficient in and murder

33 Skull of Raphael

CONTENTS OF No II.
Casts of

No

Skulls of i Pleignier, mechanician and con. 50 A Dolphin spirator

51 A young Female 8 Madelaine Albert, murderer 52 A young Calf 14 Brain of Feldman

53 A Singe Mandrill, male 19 A Male Idiot

54 A Singe Macque, male 21 A Female Idiot

55 Two Dogs 23 A Dwarf

56 A young Lion 25 Skull of Helöise

57 A young Hind 28 Top of the skull of Bichat

58 Three Foxes, 2 male, 1 female Casts of the Skulls of

59 Two Cats, male and female 29 General Wurmser

59 A Rat 30 A Hungarian soldier

60 Polecat, male and female 31 A French soldier

61 Ai 32 A milliner of Vienna

62 A Tatou Masks of

63 A Turkish Dog 34 Jobannis

64 A Dog 35 Mr Park

65 Hedgehog, male and female 36 Emperor Joseph II.

66 A Marmotte des Alpes 37 Müller the Swiss historian

67 Guinea Pigs, male and female 38 Cartouche the robber

68 Goats, male and female 39 Marat, of revolutionary notoriety 69 A Roebuck, young 40 Deshayes, engineer

70 A European Badger 41 The young Carner

71 A Seal, male 42 Cast of a human brain

72 A Spaniel Dog 43 Cast of the skull of Françoise, 73 A young Polecat murderer

74 A common Rat Skulls of

75 A Rabbit of 4 months 44 Lemercier, murderer

76 A Shrewmouse 45 An old woman who served all her 77 A male Frog

life in the dragoons, and died in 78 Two Swans and one Goose
the “ Hospital des femmes,"79 A Parrot, male and feinale (Ama-
Paris

zone) A madman and suicide of Bicetre Domestic Fowls, male and female 47 A woman of the Salpetriere 81 A common Turkey 48 Sanglier d'Ethiopie (Barbiroussa) 82 Poule Sultane 49 A young Male

83 A Balbu zard and one Chereche

Browne, student of medicine, and Mr John Cox of Gorgie Mill, were admitted ordinary members. And Mr James C. Miller, Stranraer, and Mr Vandenhoff, of the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, as corresponding members. Mr Robert Ellis was appointed Keeper of the Museum ; and the Secretary was instructed to announce the arrival of Monsieur Royer's donation when it should come to hand; and, at same time, to intimate to the public, that the Hall will continue open, as usual, upon the Saturdays, for exhibition of the casts.

ARTICLE XII.

DR MILLIGAN v. PHRENOLOGY.

DR MILLIGAN has translated " Majendie's Elementary “ Treatise on Physiology, for the use of Students,” and enriched it with notes. Among other topics he discusses Phrenology. We have not room to analyse all his statements, but submit a few observations on the following

Dr Milligan. “ We here take no notice of the hypothesis of “ Gall and Spurzheim, which supposes that there are 35 dif“ ferent faculties, all seated on the surface of the brain.

The Phrenological Doctrine. “ It must be recollected that the organs are NOT CONFINED TO THE SURFACE OR CONVOLUTIONS OF THE BRAIN, but that they extend from the surface to the “ basis, or medulla oblongata.”—COMBE's Essays on Phrenology, p. 211.

Dr Milligan. “ An eminent anatomist, Dr Barclay, (on Life, "p. 376,) asserts, that no supporter of this hypothesis will un“ dertake to point out eminences in the brain, which correspond to these external osseous protuberances.

Dr Barclay has made no such assertion; and if Dr Milligan will read again the page of this author's work to which he refers, he will find that he does not touch in the slightest degree upon the question, whether the “ eminences in the brain correspond to the external osseous protuberances," or not.

Dr Milligan. The Phrenologists, however, now very pro“perly appeal from anatomy and

physiology to facts.It is absurd to say that the Phrenologists appeal from the anatomy and physiology of the brain to facts of a different kind, because the anatomy of the brain does not indicate the functions of its different parts, and therefore cannot prove any thing against Phrenology, if it establishes nothing in its favour. Does Dr Milligan recollect, that his coadjutor, in the refutation of our science, Dr Roget, has said, that “ the brain is still as incomprehensible in its funclions as it is sub“ tile and complex in its anatomy;" and that “ its structure is so void of apparent adaptation to any purpose we can understand, that it will suit any physiological system equally well ?” It is sheer absurdity, therefore, to talk of appealing from anatomy and physiology, as if they either had shed or were capable of furnishing a single ray of light concerning the functions of the different parts of the brain. We venture to assert, that although Dr Milligan has translated “ Majendie's Com

pendium of Physiology for the use of Students,” and added to it “ the translator's Notes," he knows no more of the functions of these different parts, in virtue of his anatomy and physiology, than the goose quill with which he penned the foregoing precious specimens of philosophical acumen.

Dr Milligan. “ Phrenology places all the finer and more exalted faculties of our nature in some region or other of the forehead."

This is equally incorrect with the Doctor's other observations. The organs of Concentrativeness and Love of Approbation are marked in the upper and back part of the head, and the organs of the whole moral sentiments in the coronal surface, and they extend to the medulla oblongata respectively, altogether unconnected with the forehead.

Dr Milligan. “I have repeatedly observed, that the most ex“ tensive and available mental powers, as well as the most en“ thusiastic proclivity for individual pursuits, occur frequently “ in persons whose forehead is perfectly free of any bumps or protuberance whatever."

The Phrenological Doctrine. “ Our aim ought to be to distin“guish the SIZE AND NOT THE MERE PROMINENCE of each

organ. “If one organ be much developed, and the neighbouring organs

very little, the developed organ presents an elevation or pro

“ tuberance : but if the neighbouring organs be developed in proportion, NO PROTUBERANCE CAN BE PERCEIVED, AND THE SUR

FACE IS SMOOTH.” Essays on Phrenology, p. 211.-Did Dr Milligan imagine, when he wrote the foregoing sentence, that he was stating an objection to Phrenology? There are no bumps in the forehead of Lord Bacon !

Dr Milligan. “Every one of course will judge for himself in “ this way, as far as my own experience has gone, it has been en

tirely unfavourable to craniology; and my trials have both been “ numerous, and made on persons whose internal faculties were " strongly developed."

Dr Milligan was in a fine condition for making accurate observations. His own notes show an ignorance of the principles of the science surpassed only by his unacquaintance with its practical details.

Dr Milligan. “ On the whole, facts seem to go against the Phrenologist : his doctrine has now been submitted to the ex“ perience of the world for nearly thirty years, yet, in all that “period, so marked by a maniacal rage for scribbling, no one “ scientific person of eminence* has appeared in its defence. “ We count not small authors in a matter so important.”

Phrenology has been assailed by the Combativeness and Destructiveness of some opponents, and by the wit of others; but it was reserved to Dr Milligan to form and act upon the brilliant conception of extinguishing it by a mighty manifestation of SELF-ESTEEM! Surely induction itself must yield before the rebuke of so great a man, as “E. MILLIGAN, M.D., LICENTIATE OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OP

PHYSICIANS, EXTRAORDINARY MEMBER OF THE ROYAL MEDICAL SOCIETY, LECTURER ON PHYSIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS IN EDINBURGH, AND TRANSLATOR OF MAJENDIE'S COMPENDIUM FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS !!!”

• This is Dr Milligan's typography.

END OF No III.

PRINTED BY OLIVER AND BOYD.

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