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the bulk of the head depends chiefly on the great development of the posterior and posterior-lateral parts. The central-superior parts also are well raised, and particularly their anterior portion (Benevolence ;) but the forehead slopes, and is exceedingly narrow. While at Destructiveness, Cautiousness, and Secretiveness, the width is about 64 inches, it is only about 5}, at Constructiveness and Ideality, and only 4, at the organ of Tune. A phrenologist would, therefore, without hesitation conclude, that although the individual had no deficiency of intellect, his animal propensities must have far exceeded his intellectual powers ;-that his energy, courage, and firmness, must have rendered him very conspicuous, but not in connexion with any thing intellectual.

If we direct our attention to particular organs, we find Amativeness, Adhesiveness, Combativeness, Destructiveness, Secretiveness, Love of Approbation, Cautiousness, Benevolence, and Firmness, of great size.

1. His sexual propensities were exceedingly strong. He was notoriously addicted to women, and, it is said, at a very early age. His disposition, in this respect, was no doubt a powerful cause of the unsteadiness and wildness of his char

This, however, must have been, in a great measure, owing to the immense size of his organs of Combativeness and Destructiveness. Even as a boy he was most violent and daring. Ever in mischief, he was incessantly engaged in feats of bodily activity and enterprise : he was considered and called a very dare-devil, and few excelled him in running, wrestling, fighting, and similar exploits. When he grew up, he associated chiefly with gentlemen of the fancy ; was at every prize-fight, and took a great share in making up pugilistic matches ; was passionately fond of sparring, and would thrash any one he thought deserved it. He was exceedingly irascible,-a circumstance arising from the great development of Combativeness and Destructiveness,-and so addicted to shooting as to be called a murderous shot, though the act which brought him to his untimely end sufficiently proved his destructive propensities. Of 43 heads of murderers in


a collection at London, five only are so wide at Destructiveness as Thurtell's-his Combativeness is also immense, and no murder was ever committed with more daring. He was to have been assisted, but, being disappointed, he did not hesitate to perpetrate the deed himself; and, when his pistol failed him, nothing but the most savage ferocity enabled him to accomplish his purpose.

Yet the organ of Benevolence is very large ; and this is no contradiction, but a confirmation, of phrenology. Thurtell, with all his violence and dissipation, was a kindhearted man.

No metaphysical system of the human mind will explain the undeniable truth, that a passionate, revengeful, and not very conscientious person, may be warm-hearted, generous, and compassionate. Mary Mackinnes, executed for stabbing a man in a brothel, for which crime she showed no keen contrition, who, moreover, was an egregious liar, was in the habit of visiting the poor in her neighbourhood, and of administering to their relief, and was known to have been particularly kind to a poor man whose wife had nursed one of her children. One murderer, whose cast is on sale, gave to the poor the plunder which he obtained from his victims; and Haggart, who was executed for murder, exhibited also in his nature a portion of benevolent feeling. In regard to Thurtell, we are told, that a person of the name of John Clark, well-known in the sporting circles, had been ill for a long time, that fresh air was advised for him by his physicians, and that a few friends, unknown to Clark, were determined to make a subscription for him, and send him into the country. Among the number applied to for that purpose was J. Thurtell, who, at the time, was very much distressed in pecuniary matters. However, he pulled out of his pocket the last half-sovereign he possessed in the world, and said to the applicant, “ Here, u take half of this." Then recollecting himself,“ No no, he continued, " keep the whole of it; Clark is in want of

money, and I am sure I shall never be poorer for it." Upon witnessing a quarrel, which had nearly ended in a fight, between Harry Harmer and Ned Painter, at the house

of the former pugilist,--the Plough in Smithfield -and which originated through Thurtell, he felt so much hurt, that he shed tears in reconciling them to each other. His behaviour in prison was of so affectionate and endearing a nature, that the account of the parting scene between him and the gaoler, and others who had been in the habit of great intercourse with him during his confinement, is affecting enough to draw tears from every one whose heart is not of stone. His uniform kindness to Hunt, after Probert had escaped punishment as King's evidence, up to the moment of his execution, was of the warmest nature. Although Hunt was probably drawn into a share of the bloody transaction by Thurtell, the affectionate conduct of Thurtell towards him so completely overpowered him, that had Thurtell been the most virtuous person upon earth, and he and Hunt of opposite sexes, Thurtell could not have rendered himself more beloved than every action of Hunt proved that he was. The murder committed by Thurtell was a predetermined, cold blooded deed, nothing can justify it.* Revenge against Weare for having gambled too successfully, and, as he imagined, unfairly with him, prompted it ; but there is every probability that Thurtell laid the unwarrantable unction to his soul, that he would do a service to others by destroying Weare. He considered Weare as a complete rascal,-one who had robbed many as

It is amazing to observe the shallowness of the objections which are imagined to overturn phrenology. That Thurtell, with a large Benevolence, should commit such a deed, was reckoned by many completely subversive of the science. Do such persons recollect the character of one Othello, drawn by a person named William Shakspeare ? Is there no Adhesiveness, no Generosity, no Benevolence in that mind, as pourtrayed by the poet ? and was a more cool and deliberate murder ever committed ? Shakspeare is greatly admired for his insight into nature, which taught him that such opposite elements may co-exist in the human mind; that in the happier moments of life, a man may really display much warm and excellent feeling, and yet, at another time, when under the influence of wounded Self-esteem and highly-excited Destructiveness (the elements of the passion of Revenge), commit deeds at which humanity shud. ders ; but when Nature herself exhibits such a character in actual existence, and the phrenologists point to it as an illustration of their science, which is a mere interpretation of her laws, she and they are laughed at by the little wits of the world ! Nature, however, is a staunch friend and a fearful adversary. The long day will prove all.-EDITOR.

well as himself, and one who, if he lived, would rob many more; and hence lessened the repugnance of Benevolence and Conscientiousness to the deed. In the first conversation he had with Hunt and Probert, he is reported to have said, that he had had his revenge upon Weare, who had robbed him of £300, and that the rogue would never again be able to rob him or others; that others would now be out of danger of suffering by the rascal. Looking at Thurtells development, I am led to doubt whether he would have murdered, in cold blood, one whom he considered a good man, for the sake of robbing him. I have heard that he once cautioned some young men, who were playing with Weare, that they were pitted against one who would bring them to ruin.

Equally large with his Benevolence was Thurtell's Adhesiveness, and the co-operation of these two powerfully-developed organs explains much of his conduct.

Adhesiveness had a part in some of the favourable traits, already mentioned, of his character, and particularly in his attachment to Hunt. Pierce Egan relates, that once on taking leave of a friend at the point of death, he blubbered like a child, until he was rallied by the afflicted person to compose himself. His distress at taking leave of his brother, his last remembrances to his own family, who were the objects of his last cares, and particularly to his mother, prove the warmth of his attachment. All this apparent inconsistency, inexplicable by metaphysics and systems of moral philosophy, is at once solved by phrenology. Combativeness and Destructiveness were powerful, but Benevolence and Adhesiveness were also powerful.

One of the most striking parts of his behaviour was his Firmness. The organ of this is very large. To illustrate his Firmness would be superfluous. His was a continued manifestation of firmness, from the moment of the crime to the moment of his execution : imperturbable firmness, such as would have well become an innocent person. No pride, no vanity, no hope, no consciousness of innocence, could have given him this. Consciousness of innocence he had

not. Hope he might have had during his trial, but not at the time of execution ; as to religious hope that he surely had not, while he uttered the most palpable untruths; and at the last, certainly, he had not such intensity of religious feeling as to allow us to ascribe his firmness to his fervent hopes of a blessed hereafter. Neither could pride nor vanity, I think, have given him firmness at parting with his brother, when his Benevolence and Adhesiveness were in full operation. His brother was so affected, that Thurtell called to the turnkey to take him away by force; “for God's sake," said Thurtell, “ take him away, for he unmans me.” In truth, firmness is a distinct attribute or function of the mind, and totally inexplicable on any other supposition. A person may have motives enough to be firm, but may, notwithstanding this, be deficient in firmness. Thurtell was violent, amicable, passionate, and very kind-hearted, yet was prodigiously firm. I was convinced that Firmness was a distinct power, before studying phrenology, by reading Mr Forster's wellknown, and justly-esteemed essay on Decision of Character : Thurtell had extraordinary Firmness of character, and his organ of Firmness was very large. Secretivenes was also of very large size, and Secretiveness was a remarkable part of Thurtell's character. I have heard that when young he was a notorious liar-that his word could never be at all depended upon. His defence was an egregious falsehood; and the solemn appeal to the Almighty of his innocence was too shocking to be contemplated. Secretiveness gives the disposition and power to conceal our real feelings, and in this Thurtell was eminently successful. During the trial he betrayed no emotion, not even when the verdict was delivered and sentence was passed upon him. Firmness, of course, materially co-operated with his Secretiveness. At the time of execution, a nice observer could detect, in a slight quivering of the lips, and a little shaking of the head, the inward agony of his soul, but nothing more was discernible. A martyr could not have perished more heroically. On a friend remarking to him, after his condemnation, that he could not be accused

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