The Voyage of the "Challenger": The Atlantic; a Preliminary Account of the General Results of the Exploring Voyage of H. M. S. "Challenger" During the Year 1873 and the Early Part of the Year 1876
Macmillan and Company, 1877
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100 fathoms abundant acid Admiralty animal apparatus Atlantic attached Barometer Bermudas Bottom temperature bulb calcareous calicle Cape carbonate of lime Castle Harbour Cent character close coast coccoliths colour coral curve deep deep-sea delicate Depth diameter Distance from Fayal Distance from Sombrero Ditto dredge Expedition fathoms fauna Fayal foraminifera genus Globigerina ooze Grey ooze Gulf Stream Harrington Sound haul Hydra inches instrument length limestone Long lower Madeira miles natural nearly North observations ocean Orbulina pair plates Pourtales President and Council radiolarians red clay reef ridges rock round Royal Society sand Sandy Hook sarcode sea-water seems septa serial soundings shells ship siliceous slip water-bottle soil Sombrero Island species specific gravity specimens spicules spines sponge Station stopcocks Stylaster surface taken temperature soundings Teneriffe thermometer Thomson tow-net trawl tube ture usually voyage weight
Página 210 - They are more abundant and of a larger size in warmer seas; several varieties, attaining a large size and presenting marked varietal characters, are found in the intertropical area of the Atlantic. In the latitude of Kerguelen they are less numerous and smaller, while further south they are still more dwarfed, and only one variety, the typical Globigerina bulloides, is represented.
Página 223 - ... fathoms, and consists almost entirely of a silicate of the red oxide of iron and alumina. The transition is very slow, and extends over several hundred fathoms of increasing depth ; the shells gradually lose their sharpness of outline, and assume a kind of 'rotten ' look and a brownish colour, and become more and more mixed with a fine amorphous red-brown powder, which increases steadily in proportion until the lime has almost entirely disappeared. This brown matter is in the finest possible...
Página 210 - I now admit that I was in error ; and I agree with him that it may be taken as proved that all the materials of such deposits, with the exception, of course, of the remains of animals which we now know to live at the bottom at all depths, which occur in the deposit as foreign bodies, are derived from the surface.
Página 203 - It affords, in fact," Thomson wrote conclusive proof that the conditions of the bottom of the sea to all depths are not only such as to admit of the existence of animal life, but are such as to allow of the unlimited extension of the distribution of animals high in the zoological series, and closely in relation with the characteristic faunae of shallower zones.42 After leaving the West Indies, however, he had to revise some of his conclusions.
Página 293 - Efore we present you the matters of fact, it is fit to offer to your view the Stage whereon they were acted : for as Geography without History seemeth a carkasse without motion ; so History without Geography, wandreth as a Vagrant without a certaine habitation.
Página 295 - Clay is found vnder it, it seemes to be ingendred with raine water, draining through the earth, and drawing with it of his substance vnto a certaine depth where it congeales ; the hardest kinde of it lies vnder the red ground like quarries, as it were thicke slates one vpon another, through which the water hath his passage, so that in such places there is scarce found any fresh water, for all or the most part of the fresh water commeth out of the Sea draining through the sand, or that substance called...
Página 226 - The nature and origin of this vast deposit of clay is a question of the very greatest interest; and although I think there can be no doubt that it is in the main solved, yet some matters of detail are still involved in difficulty. My first impression was that it might be the most minutely divided material, the ultimate sediment produced by the disintegration of the land, by rivers and by the action of the sea on exposed coasts, and held in suspension and distributed by ocean currents, and only making...
Página 208 - Messina, often in great numbers, particularly in February. Often the shell was covered with a whole forest of extremely long and delicate calcareous tubes projecting from all sides, and probably contributing essentially to enable these little animals to float below the surface of the water by...
Página 87 - ... capturing bodies which are being carried along by currents, and therefore great caution is necessary in reference to any marine plants found in it. Sea-weeds are among the most common of all bodies carried by currents near the surface or at various depths below, and from their nature are very likely to be entangled and brought up.