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No 210

21 1

On the immortality of the soul
On the transmigration of Souls
Anthony Freeman's letter on the tyranny of bis wife 212
On fuperftition

213 On punctuality and dependence

214 On education

215 Tom Maggot's account of Freeman's success 216 Description of the club of She-Romps

217 On reputation

218 The use of ambition when rightly directed

219 Letters, to an ungracious lover; on authors, &c. 220 On the Motto's at the bead and Marks at the end of each paper

221 On misapplication of talents

222 An account of the poetess Sappho, with her hymn to Venus223 On ambition

224 An esay on discretion

225 On Raphael's Cartons at Hampton-Court

226 A defcription of the Lover's Leap, with Davith ap Shenkyn's letter

227 On inquisitiveness

228 A fragment of Sappho, translated by Catullus, Boileau and Phillips

229 On benevolence and education

230 On modefly

231 On beggars

232 History of the Lover's Leap

233 On a new species of lying, and on free-thinking

234 An account of the Trunkmaker in the upper gallery 235 On marriage, with a letter from Tristissa

236 On curiosity

237 On flattery On the management of a debate

239 Letters on bercic virtue, good-breeding, &c. 240 On absence in love On ill-manners. An affecting scene of distress, &c. 242 On virtue

243 On painting On the knowledge of the world

245 On the nursing of children 246 | On laughter 249 On female oratory 247 On the cries of LonOn generosity

248
don

250

238

241

244 Τ Η Ε

SPECTATOR.

N° 170: Friday, September 14, 1711.

In amore hæc omnia insunt vitia : injuriæ,
Sufpiciones, inimicitie, induciæ,
Bellum, pax rursum- Ter. Eun. Act. 1. Sc. 1.

All these inconveniencies are incident to love : Re

proaches, jealousies, quarrels, reconcilements, war,

and then peace. ! UPON

PON looking over the letters of my female correspondents, I find several from women complaining of jealons husbands, and at the same time protesting their own innocence ; and desiring my advice on this occasiI shall therefore take this subject into my

confideration, and the more willingly, because I find that the marquis of Hallifax, who, in his Advice to a Daughter, has instructed a wife how to behave herself towards a false, an intemperate, a choleric, a sullen, a covetous, or a filly husband, has not spoken one word of a jealous husband.

Jealousy is that pain which a man feels from the apprehension that he is not equally beloved by the person whom he intirely loves. Now because our inward

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passions and inclinations can never make themselves vifible, it is impoffible for a jealous man to be thoroughly cured of his suspiciors. His thoughts hang at best in a state of doubtfulness and uncertainty; and are never capable of receiving any satisfaction on the advantageous side ; so that his inquiries are more successful when . they discover nothing. His pleasure arises from his disappointments, and his life is spent in pursuit of a fecret that destroys his happiness if he chance to find it.

An ardent love is always a strong ingredient in this paflion ; for the fame affection which stirs up the jealous man's desires, and gives the party beloved so beautiful a figure in his imagination, makes him believe the kindles the same passion in others, and appears as amiable to all beholders. And as jealousy thus arises from an extraordinary love, it is of 1o delicate a nature, that it scorns to take

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with any thing less than an equal return of love. Not the warmest expressions of affection, the foftest and moit tender hypocrisy, are able to give any fatisfaction, where we are not persuaded that the affection is real, and the satisfaction mutual

. For the jealous man wishes himfelf a kind of deity to the person he loves : he would be the only pleasure of her senses, the employment of her thoughts ; and is angry at every thing the admires, or takes delight in, besides bimself...

Phædria's request to his mistress upon his leaving her for three days, is inimitably beautiful and natural.

Cum milite ifto præfens, abfens ut hes:
Dies noctesque me ames: me defideres :
Me somnies : me expelles : de me cogites :
Me speres : me te oblectes : 'mecum tota fis :
Meus fac fis puftremò animus, quando ego fum tuus.

Ter. Eun. Act.
When

you are in company with that soldier, behave as if you were absent : but continue to love me by day and by night: want me ; dream of me ; expect ine; think of me; wish for me ; delight in me : be wholly with me : in Thort, be my very foul, as I am yours.'

The jealous man's disease is of fo malignant a nature, that it converts all he takes into its own nourishment.

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A cool behaviour fets him on the rack, and is interpreted as an instance of averfion or indifference ; a fond one raises his suspicions, and looks too much like diffimulation and artifice. If the person he loves be chearful, her thoughts must be employed on another ; and if fad, she is certainly thinking on himself. In short, there is no word or gesture fo insignificant, but it gives him new hints, feeds his fufpicions, and furnishes him with fresh matters of discovery : so that if we confider the effects of this paifion, one would rather think it proceeded from an inveterate hatred, than an exceffive love ; for certainly none can meet with more disquietude and uneafiness than a fuspected wife, if we except the jealous husband.

But the great unhappiness of this passion is, that it naturally tends to alienate the affection which it is so so-. licitous to ingrofs ; and that for these two reasons, because it lays too great a constraint on the words and actions of the fufpected person, and at the same time fhews-you have no honourable opinion of her; both of which are strong motives to aversion.

Nor is this the worst effect of jealousy ; for it often draws after it a more fatal train of consequences, and makes the person you fuspect guilty of the very crimes you are so much afraid of. It is very natural for such who are treated ill and upbraided falsely, to find out an intimate friend that will hear their complaints; condole their fufferings, and endeavour to footh and assuage: their secret resentments. Besides, jealousy puts a wow man often in mind of an ill thing that she would not otherwise perhaps have thought of, and fills her imagination with such an unlucky idea, as in time grows familiar, excites delire, and loses all the shame and horror which might at firft attend it. Nor is it a wonder if the who suffers wrongfully in a man's opinion of her, and has therefore nothing to forfeit in his esteem, resolves to give him realon for his suspicions, and to enjoy the pleasure of the crime, since she must undergo the ignominy. Such probably were the considerations that directed the wife man in his advice to husbands ; 'Be not

jealous over the wife of thy bosom, and teach her not? an evil leffon against thyself.' Ecclus.

And here, among the other torments which this pafsion produces, we may usually observe that none are greater mourners than jealous men, when the perfon who provoked their jealousy is taken from them. Then it is that their love breaks out furiously, and throws off all the mixtures of suspicion which choaked and smothered it before. The beautiful parts of the character rise uppermost in the jealous husband's memory, and upbraid him with the ill usage of so divine a creature as was once in his poffeffion ; whilst all the little imperfections, that were before so uneasy to him, wear off from his remembrance, and shew themselves no more. We may

see by what has been said, that jealousy takes the deepest root in men of amorous dispositions ; and of these we may find three kinds who are most over-run with it.

The first are thofe who are conscious to themselves of any infirmity, whether it be weakness, old age, deformity, ignorance, or the like. These men are so well acquainted with the unamiable part of themselves, that they have not the confidence to think they are really beloved; and are fo diftruftful of their own merits, that all fondness towards them puts them out of countenance, and looks like a jest upon their persons. They grow suspicious on their first looking in a glass, and are ftung with jealousy at the sight of a wrinkle. A handsome fellow immediately alarms them, and every thing that looks young or gay turns their thoughts upon their wives.

A second sort of men, who are most liable to this passion, are those of cunning, wary, and distrustful tempers. It is a fault very justly found in histories com

а posed by politicians, that they leave nothing to chance or humour, but are still for deriving every action from some plot or contrivance, for drawing up a perpetual scheme of causes and events, and preserving a constant correspondence between the camp and the council table. And thus it happens in the affairs of love with men of too refined a thought. They put a construction on a look, and find out a design in a smile ; they give new senses and significations to words and actions ; and are ever torinenting themselves with fancies of

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