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"down-fitting and his up-rifing, who is about his path, "and about his bed, and fpieth out all his ways." In a word, he remembers that the eye of his judge is always upon him, and in every action he reflects that he is doing what is commanded or allowed by him who will hereafter either reward or punish it. This was the character of those holy men of old, who in that beautiful phrafe of Cripe are faid to have "walked with God."

When I employ myself upon a paper of morality, I genelly confider how I may recommend the particular virtue which I treat of, by the precepts or examples of the ancient heathens; by that means, if poffible, to fhame thofe who have greater advantages of knowing their duty, and therefore greater obligations to perform it, into a better courfe of life: befides that many among us are unreasonably difpofed to give a fairer hearing to a pagan philofopher, than to a chriftian writer.

I fhall therefore produce an inftance of this excellent frame of mind in a fpeech of Socrates, which is quoted by Erafmus. This great philofopher on the day of his execution, a little before the draught of poifon was brought to him, entertaining his friends with a difcourfe on the immortality of the foul, has thefe words: "Whe"ther or no God will approve of my actions, I know

not; but this I am fure of, that I have at all times "made it my endeavour to please him, and I have a good hope that this my endeavour will be accepted by "him." We find in thefe words of that great man the habitual good intention which I would here inculcate, and with which that divine philofopher always acted. I fhall only add, that Erafmus, who was an unbigoted Roman-catholic, was fo much tranfported with this paffage of Socrates, that he could fcarce forbear looking upon him as a faint, and defiring him to pray for him; or as that ingenious and learned writer has expreffed himfelf in a much more lively manner : "When I reflect on "fuch a fpeech pronounced by fuch a perfon, I can "fcarce forbear crying out, Sandle Socrates, or a pro nobis: "O holy Socrates, pray for us.

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N° 214.



Monday, November 5.

-Perierunt tempora lungi

Juv. Sat. 3. ver. 124.

A long dependence in an hour is loft.


DID fome time ago lay before the world the unhappy condition of the trading part of mankind, who fuffer by want of punctuality in the dealings of perfons above them; but there is a set of men who are much more the objects of compaffion than even thofe, and these are the dependents on great men, whom they are pleased to take under their protection as fuch as are to fhare in their friendship and favour. Thefe indeed, as well from the homage that is accepted from them, as the hopes which are given to them, are become a fort of creditors and thefe debts, being debts of honour, ought, according to the accuftomed maxim, to be first difcharged.

When I fpeak of dependents, I would not be underftood to mean those who are worthlefs in themselves, or who, without any call, will prefs into the company of their betters. Nor, when I fpeak of patrons, do I mean those who either have it not in their power, or have no obligation to affift their friends; but I fpeak of fuch leagues where there is power and obligation on the one part, and merit and expectation on the other.

The divifion of patron and client, may, I believe, include a third of our nation; the want of merit and real worth in the client, will ftrike out about ninetynine in an hundred of these; and the want of ability in patrons, as many of that kind. But however, I mustbeg leave to fay, that he who will take up another's time and fortune in his fervice, though he has no profpect of rewarding his merit towards him, is as unjust in his dealings as he who takes up goods of a tradefman without intention or ability to pay him. Of the few

of the clafs which I think fit to confider, there are not two in ten who fucceed, infomuch that I know a man of good fenfe who put his fon to a blacksmith, though an offer was made him of his being received as a page to a man of quality. There are not more cripples come out of the wars than there are from those great fervices; fome through difcontent lose their speech, fome their memories, others their fenfes or their lives; and I feldom fee a man thoroughly difcontented, but I conclude he has had the favour of fome great man. I have known of fuch as have been for twenty years together within a month of a good employment, but never arrived at the happiness of being poffeffed of any thing.

There is nothing more ordinary, than that a man who is got into a confiderable ftation, fhall immediately alter his manner of treating all his friends, andfrom that moment he is to deal with you as if he were your fate. You are no longer to be confulted, even in matters which concern yourfelf; but your patron is of a fpecies above you, and a free communication with you is not to be expected. This perhaps may be your condition all the while he bears office, and when that is at an end, you are as intimate as ever you were, and he will take it very ill if you keep the distance he prescribed you towards him in his grandeur. One would think this fhould be a behaviour a man could fall into with the worst grace imaginable; but they who know the world have feen it more than once. I have often, with fecret pity, heard the fame man who has profeffed his abhorrence against all kind of paffive behaviour, lofe minutes, hours, days, and years in a fruitless attendance on one who had no inclination to befriend him. It is very much to be regretted, that the great have one particular privilege above the reft of the world, of being flow in receiving_impreffions of kindnefs, and quick in taking offence. The elevation above the reft of mankind, except in very great minds, makes men fo giddy, that they do not fee after the fame manner they did before thus they defpife their old friends, and frive to extend their interefts to new pretenders. By this means it often happens that when you come to know how you loft fuch an employment,

you will find the man who got it never dreamed of it;. but forfooth, he was to be furprised into it, or perhaps folicited to receive it. Upon fuch occafions as these a man may perhaps grow out of humour; if you are fo, all mankind will fall in with the patron, and you are an humorist and untractable if you are capable of being four at a disappointment: but it is the fame thing, whether you do or do not refent ill ufage, you will be ufed after the fame manner; as fome good mothers will be fure to whip their children until they cry, and then whip them for crying.

There are but two ways of doing any thing with great people, and those are by making yourself either confiderable or agreeable; the former is not to be attained but by finding a way to live without them, or concealing that you want them; the latter is only by falling into their taste and pleasures this is of all the employments in the world the moft fervile, except it happens to be of your own natural humour. For to be agreeable to another, especially if he be above you, is not to be poffeffed of fuch qualities and accomplishments as should render you agreeable in yourfelf, but fuch as make you: agreeable in refpect to him: An imitation of his faults, or a compliance, if not fubfervience, to his vices, mutt be the measures of your conduct.

When it comes to that, the unnatural ftate a man lives in, when his patron pleafes, is ended; and his guilt. and complaifance are objected to him, though the man. who rejects him for his vices, was not only his partner but feducer. Thus the client, like a young woman who has given up the innocence which made her charming,. has not only loft his time, but also the virtue which could render him capable of refenting the injury which is done him.

It would be endless to recount the tricks of turning, you off from themselves to perfons who have lefs power to ferve you, the art of being forry for fuch an unaccountable accident in your behaviour, that fuch a one who, perhaps, has never heard of you, oppofes your advancentent; and if you have any thing more than ordinary in you, you are flattered with a whifper, that it is no wonder people are fo flow in doing for a man of your talents and the like,


After all this treatment, I muft ftill add the pleasanteft infolence of all, which I have once or twice feen to wit, that when a filly rogue has thrown away one part in three of his life in unprofitable attendance, it is taken wonderfully ill that he withdraws, and is refolved to employ the reft for himself.

When we confider these things, and reflect upon fo many honeft natures, which one, who makes obfervation of what paffes, may have seen, that have miscarried by fuch fort of applications, it is too melancholy a scene to dwell upon; therefore I fhall take another opportunity to difcourfe of good patrons, and diftinguish fuch as have done their duty to thofe who have depended upon them, and were not able to act without their favour. Worthy patrons are like Plato's guardian angels, who are always doing good to their wards; but negligent patrons are like Epicurus's gods, that lie lolling on the clouds, and inftead of bleffings pour down ftorms and tempefts on the heads of thofe that are offering incenfe to them.


N° 215.

Tuesday, November 6.

-Ingenuas didiciffe fideliter artes

Emollit mores, nec finit effe feros.

OVID. Ep. 9. 1. 2. de Ponto, v. 47.

Ingenuous arts, where they an entrance find,
Soften the manners, and fubdue the mind.


CONSIDER an human foul without education like marble in the quarry, which fhews none of its inherent beauties, until the fkill of the polifher fetches out the colours, makes the surface thine, and difcovers every ornamental cloud, fpot, and vein that runs through the body of it. Education, after the fame manner, when it works upon a noble mind, draws out to view every

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