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down-fitting and his up-rising, who is about his path, " and about his bed, and spieth out all his ways.” In a word, he remembers that the eye of his judge is always upon him, and in every action he reflects that he is doing what is commanded or allowed by him who will hereafter either reward or punish it. This was the character of those holy men of old, who in that beautiful phrase of kriphine are said to have “ walked with God."

When I employ myself upon a paper of inorality, I genewlly consider how I may recommend the particular virtue which I treat of, by the precepts or examples of the ancient heathens ; by that means, if possible, to fhame those who have greater advantages of knowing their duty, and therefore greater obligations to perform it, into a better course of life : belides that many among us are unreasonably disposed to give a fairer hearing to a pagan philosopher, than to a christian writer.

I shall therefore produce an instance of this excellent frame of mind in a speech of Socrates, which is quoted by Erafmus. This great philosopher on the day of his execution, a little before the draught of poison was brought to him, entertaining his friends with a discourse on the immortality of the foul, has these words: “Whe" ther or no God will approve of my actions, I know “ not ; but this I am sure of, that I have at all times “ made it my endeavour to please hiin, and I have a

good hope that this my endeavour will be accepted by “ him." We find in these words of that great man the habitual good intention which I would here inculcate, and with which that divine philosopher always acted. I shall only add, that Erasmus, who was an unbigoted Roman-catholic, was so much transported with this palfage of Socrates, that he could scarce forbear looking upon him as a faint, and defiring him to pray for him ; or as that ingenious and learned writer has expressed himself in a much more lively manner : “ When I reflect on

such a speech pronounced by such a person, I can “ scarce forbear crying out, Sancte Socrates, or a pro nobis: “ O holy Socrates, pray for us.”




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N° 214

Monday, November 5.

Perierunt tempora lungi Serurtii

Juv. Sat. 3. ver. 1 24. A long dependence in an hour is loft.


I did some time ago lay before the world tre un

happy condition of the trading part of mankind, who suffer by want of punctuality in the dealings of persons above them ; but there is a set of men who are much more the objects of compassion than even those, and these are the dependents on great men, whom they are pleased to take under their protection as such as are to Ihare in their friendship and favour. These indeed, as well from the homage that is accepted from them, as the hopes which are given to them, are become a sort of creditors : and thefe debts, being debts of honour, ought, according to the accustomed maxim, to be first dit charged.

When I speak of dependents, I would not be understood to mean those who are worthless in themselves, or who, without any call, will press into the company of their betters. Nor, when I speak of patrons, do I mean those who either have it not in their power, or have no obligation to aslift their friends ; but I speak of such leagues where there is power and obligation on the one part, and merit and expectation on the other.

The division of patron and client, may, I believe, include a third of our nation ; the want of merit and real worth in the client, will strike out about ninety-. nine in an hundred of these ; and the want of ability in patrons, as many of that kind. But however, I muft: beg leave to say, that he who will take up another's tiine and fortune in his service, though he has no profpect of rewarding his merit towards him, is as unjust in his dealings as he who takes up goods of a tradesman. without intcrtion or ability to pay hin. Of the fetu

of the class which I think fit to consider, there are not two in ten who succeed, insomuch that I know a man of good sense who put his son to a blacksmith, though an offer was made him of his being received as a page to a man of quality. There are not more cripples come out of the wars than there are from those great services; 1ome through discontent lose their speech, some their inemories, others their senses or their lives; and I feldom see a man thoroughly discontented, but I conclude he has had the favour of some great man. I have known of such as have been for twenty years together within a month of a good employment, but never arrived at the happiness of being poffeffed of any thing.

There is nothing more ordinary, than that a man who is got into a considerable station, shall immediately alter his manner of treating all his friends, andfrom that moment he is to deal with you as if he were your fate. You are no longer to be consulted, even in matters which concern yourself, but your patron is of a species above you, and a free communication with you is not to be expected. This perhaps may be your condition all the while he bears office, and when that is at an end, you are as intimate as ever you were, and he will take it very ill if you keep the distance he prescribed you towards him in his grandeur. One would think this should be a behaviour a man could fall into with the worst grace imaginable ; but they who know the world have seen it more than once. I have often, with secret pity, heard the same man who has professed his abhorrence against all kind of paslive behaviour, lose minutes, hours, days, and years in a fruitless attendance on one who had no inclination to befriend him. It is very much to be regretted, that the great have one particular privilege above the rest of the world, of being flow in receiving impressions of kindness, and quick in taking offence. The elevation above the rest of mankind, except in very great minds, makes men fo giddy, that they do not see after the same manner they did before : thus they despise their old friends, and ftrive to extend their interests to new pretenders. By this means it often happens that when you coine to know how you loft such an employment,


you will find the man who got it never dreamed of it;. but forsooth, he was to be surprised into it, or perhaps solicited to receive it. Upon fuchi occasions as these a man may perhaps grow out of humour ; if you are so, all mankind will fall in with the patron, and you are an humorist and untractable if you are capable of being four at a disappointment: but it is the fame thing, whether you do or do not refent ill usage, you will be used after the same manner ; as some good mothers will be sure to whip their children until they cry, and then whip them for crying.

There are but two ways of doing any thing with great people, and those are by making yourself either confiderable or agreeable ; the former is not to be attained but by finding a way to live without them, or concealing that you want them ; the latter is only by falling into their taste and pleasures this is of all the employ-. ments in the world the inoft servile, except it happens to be of your own natural humour. For to be agreeable to another, especially if he be above you, is not to be poffeffed of such qualities and accomplishments as should render you agreeable in yourself, but such as make you agreeable in respect to bim: An imitation of his faults, or a compliance, if not subservience, to his vices, muit be the measures of


conduct. When it comes to that, the unnatural state a man lives in, when his patron pleases, is ended ; and his guilt and complaisance are objected to hi.n, though the man. who rejects hin for his vices, was not only his partner but seducer: Thus the client, like a young woman who has given up the innocence which made her charning, has not only lost his time, but also the virtue which could render him capable of resenting the injury which is done hiin.

It would be endless to recount the tricks of turning you off from themselves to persons who have less power io serve you, the art of being sorry for such an unaccountable accident in your behaviour, that such a one who, perhaps, has never heard of you, opposes your advancenrent ; and if you

have any thing more than ordinary in you, you are flattered with a whisper, that it: is no wonder people are so flow in doing for a man of: your talents and the like,

After ::1l this treatment, I must still add the pleasantest insolence of all, which I have once or twice seen; to wit, that when a lilly rogue has thrown away one part in three of his life in unprofitable attendance, it is taken wonderfully ill that he withdraws, and is refolved to employ the rest for himself.

When we conlider these things, and reflect upon so many honest natures, which one, who makes observation of what passes, may have seen, that have miscarried by such sort of applications, it is too melancholy a scene to dwell upon ; therefore I shall take another opportunity to discourse of good patrons, and distinguish such es have done their duty to those who have depended upon them, and were not able to act without their favour. Worthy patrons are like Plato's guardian angels, who are always doing good to their wards; but negligent patrons are like Epicurus's gods, that lie lolling on the clouds, and instead of blessings pour down storms and tempefts on the heads of those that are offering incense to them.


N° 215.

Tuesday, November 6.

-Ingenuas didicisse fideliter artes Emollit mores, nec finit elle feros.

Ovip. Ep. 9. 1. 2. de Ponto, V. 47. Ingenuous arts, where they an entrance find, Soften the manners, and subdue the mind.


IDER an human soul without education like marble in the quarry, which shews none of its inherent beauties, until the skill of the polisher fetches out the colours, makes the surface thine, and discovers every ornamental cloud, spot, and vein that runs through the hody of it. Education, after the same imanner, when it works upon a noble mind, draws out to view every

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