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uncle Jofeph, with private orders to put her to death, if any fuch violence was offered to himfelf. This Joseph was much delighted with Marianne's converfation, and endeavoured with all his art and rhetoric, to set out the excess of Herod's paffion for her ; but when he still found her cold and incredulous, he inconfiderately told her, as a certain instance of her lord's affection, the private orders he had left behind him, which plainly fhewed, according to Jofeph's interpretation, that he could neither live nor die without her. This barbarous instance of a wild unreasonable passion quite put out, for a time, those little remains of affection she still had for her lord : her thoughts were so wholly taken up with the cruelty of his orders, that she could not confider the kindness that produced them, and therefore represented him in her imagination, rather under the frightful idea of a murderer than a lover. Herod was at length acquitted and dismiffed by Mark Antony, when his soul was all in flames for his Mariamne ; but before their nieeting, he was not a little alarmed at the report he had heard of his uncle's conversation and familiarity with her in his absence. This therefore was the first discourse he entertained her with, in which the found it no easy matter to quiet his fufpicions. But at last he appeared to well fatisfied of her innocence, that from reproaches and wranglings he fell to tears and embraces. Both of them wept very tenderly at their reconciliation, and Herod poured out his whole foul to her in the warmest
protestations of love and constancy ; when amidft all his fighs and languishings she asked him, whether the private orders he left with his uncle Joseph were an instance of fuch an inflamed affection. The jealous king was immediately roused at fo unexpected a question, and concluded his uncle must have been too familiar with her, before he would have discovered such a secret. In fort, he put his uncle to death, and very difficultly prevailed
upon himself to fpare Mariamne. After this he was forced on a fecond journey into Egypt, when he committed his lady to the care of Sohemus, with the same private orders he had before given his uncle, if any mischief befell him. In the mean while Mariamné fo won upon Sobemus by her presents
and obliging conversation, that she drew all the secret from him, with which Herod had intrufted him ; fo that after his return, when he flew to her with all the transports of joy and love, she received him coldly with fighs and tears, and all the marks of indifference and aversion. This reception so stirred up his indignation, that he had certainly slain her with his own hands, had not he feared he himself fhould have become the greater sufferer by it. It was not long after this, when he had another violent return of love upon him ; Mariamne was therefore sent for to him, whom he endeavoured to soften and reconcile with all possible conjugal caresses and endearments; but the declined his embraces, and answered all his fondness with bitter invectives for the death of her father and her brother. This behaviour fo incenfed Herod, that he very hardly refrained from striking her; when in the heat of their quarrel there came in a witness, suborned by fome of Mariamne's enemies, who accuséd her to the king of a design to poison him. Herod was now prepared to hear any thing in her prejudice, and immediately ordered her servant to be stretched upon the rack : who in the extremity of his tortures confest, that his mistress's a version to the king arose from something Sohemus had told her ; but
as for any design of poisoning, he utterly disowned the least knowledge of it
. This confession quickly proved fatal to Sohemus, who now lay under the same suspicions and sentence that Joseph had before him on the like occasion. Nor would Herod rest here; but accused her with great vehemence of a design upon his life, and by his authority with the judges had her publicly condemned and executed. Herod soon after her death grew melancholy and dejected, retiring from the public administration of affairs into a solitary forest, and there abandoning himself to all the black considerations, which naturally arise from a passion made up of love, remorse, pity, and despair. He used to rave for his Mariamne, and to call upon her in his distracted fits; and in all probability would soon have followed her, had not his thoughts been seasonably called off from fo fad an object by public storms, which at that tinc very nearly threatened him,
Monday, September 17.
Non solàm scientia, quæ eft remota à justitia, calliditas
potiùs quam fapientia eft appellanda; verùm etiam animus paratus ad periculum, fi fuâ cupiditate, non utilitate communi, impellitur, audaciæ potiùs nomen habeat, quàm fortitudinis
PLATO apud Tull. As knowledge, without justice, ought to be called cun
ning, rather than wisdom; so a mind prepared to meet danger, if excited by its own eagerness, and not the public good, deserves the name of audacity, rather than of
HERE can be no greater injury to human society than that good talents among men should be held honourable to those who are endowed with them without any regard how they are applied. The gifts of nature and accomplishments of art are valuable but as they are exerted in the interests of virtue, or governed by the rules of honour. We ought to abstract our minds from the observation of any excellence in those we converse with, until we have taken some notice, or received some good information of the disposition of their minds; otherwise the beauty of their persons, or the charms of their wit, may make us fond of those whom our reason and judgment will tell us we ought to abhor.
When we suffer ourfelves to be thus carried away by mere beauty, or mere wit, Omniainante, with all her vice, will bear away as much of our good-will as the moft innocent virgin or discreetest matron; and there cannot be a more abject slavery in this world than to dote upon what we think we ought to condemn': yet this must be our condition in all the parts of life, if we suffer ourselves to approve any thing but what tends to the promotion of what is good and honourable. If we would take true pains with ourselves to consider all things by the light of reason and justice, though a man were in the height of youth and amorous inclinations, he would look upon a coquette with the same contempt or indifference as he would upon a coxcomb : the wanton carriage in a woman would disappoint her of the admiration which she aims at ; and the vain dress or discourse of a man would destroy the comeliness of his shape, or goodness of his understanding. I say the goodness of his underftanding, for it is no less common to see men of sense commence coxcombs, than beautiful women become immodeft. When this happens in either, the favour we are naturally inclined to give to the good qualities they have from nature should abate in proportion. But however just it is to measure the value of men by the application of their talents, and not by the eminence of those qualities abstracted from their use; I say, however just such a way of judging is, in all ages as well as this, the contrary has prevailed upon the generality of mankind. How many lewd devices have been preserved from one age to another, which had perished as soon as they were made, if painters and sculptors had been esteemed as much for the purpose as the execution of their designs ? Modest and well-governed imaginations have by this means lost the representations of ten thousand charming portraitures, filled with images of innate truth, generous zeal, courageous faith, and tender humanity; instead of which, fatyrs, furies, and monsters are recommended by those arts to a shameful eternity.
The unjust application of laudable.talents, is tolerated in the general opinion of men, not only in such cafes as are here mentioned, but also in matters which concern ordinary life. If a lawyer were to be esteemed only as he uses his parts in contending for justice, and were immediately despicable when he appeared in a cause which he could not but know was an unjust one, how honourable would his character be ? and how honourable is it in such among us, who follow the profession no otherwise, than as labouring to protect the injured, to subdue the oppressor, to imprison the careless debtor, and do right to the painful artificer? but many
of this excellent character are overlooked by the greater number; who affect covering a weak place in a client's title, diverting the course of an inquiry, or finding a skilful
refuge to palliate a falsehood ; yet it is still called eloquence in the latter, though thus unjustly employed : but resolution in an affaflin is according to reason quite as laudable, as knowledge and wisdom exercised in the desence of an ill cause.
Were the intention stedfaftly considered, as the measure of approbation, all falsehood would soon be out of countenance: and an address in imposing upon mankind, would be as contemptible in one state of life as another. A couple of courtiers making professions of esteem, would make the fame figure after breach of promise, as two knights of the post convicted of perjury. But conversation is fallen fo low in point of morality, that as they fay in a bargain, 'Let the buyer look to it; fo in friendship, he is the man in danger who is moft apt to believe : he is the more likely to suffer in the commerce, who begins with the obligation of being the mcre ready to enter into it.
But those men only are truly great, who place their ambition rather in acquiring to themfelves the conscience of worthy enterprises, than in the prospect of glory which attends them. These exalted spirits would rather be secretly the authors of events which are ferviceable to mankind, than, without being such, to have the public fame of it. Where therefore an eminent merit is robbed by artifice or detraction, it does but increase by such endeavours of its enemies: the impotent pains which are taken to fully it, or diffuse it among a croud to the injury of a single person, will naturally produce the contrary effect; the fire will blaze out, and burn up all that attempt to finother what they cannot extinguish.
There is but one thing necessary to keep the poffeffion of true glory, which is, to hear the opposers of it with patience, and preserve the virtue by which it was acquired. When a man is thoroughly persuaded that he ought neither to admire, with for, or pursue any thing, but what is exactly his duty, it is not in the power of feafons, perfons or accidents, to diminish his value. He only is a great man who can neglect the applause of the multitude, and enjoy himself independent of its favour. This is indeed an arduous talk ; but it should comfort a glorious fpirit that it is the highest step to which human