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kindness of the Yale University Press, the publishers of my Outline Sketch of English Constitutional History, for permission to use parts of that book in the present one. The important steps in the development and the results are indicated there, and that book will be found valuable for review and for a summary statement. I am also greatly indebted to many scholars who have made me valuable suggestions and especially to Professors A. L. Cross of Michigan, Wallace Notestein of Cornell, and R. L. Schuyler of Columbia Universities, as well as to Professor C. H. Haskins of Harvard University, the general editor of the American Historical Series. I am sorry that I have not had the advantage of Professor A. F. Pollard's Evolution of Parliament, which is not yet available here.

G. B. A. New Haven,

October 16, 1920.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Of the compendious general histories of the English constitution, T. P. Taswell-Langmead's is the most satisfactory on the whole for American use, but numerous revisions have affected practically only the most recent periods, and much of the narrative depends too exclusively on the statutes. Its great advantage is that it presents a continuous chronological account and that the detail is full. D. J. Medley's is more accurate in the earlier portions and has been kept abreast of recent legislation, but it treats the subject topically rather than in its chronological development. F. W. Maitland's is based on the lectures given by Professor Maitland at Cambridge in 1887 and 1888, and is full of suggestion for the teacher. It presents the subject in cross sections at five important epochs. J. Hatschek’s Englische Verfassungsgeschichte is valuable as giving the views of a foreign scholar and treats of many topics not usually covered elsewhere. It has full bibliographies. R. Gneist's History of the English Constitution, translated by P. A. Ashworth, is still useful, especially for facts not commonly given. J. A. R. Marriott's English Political Institutions, though concerned chiefly with present institutions, is helpful in tracing their historical antecedents.

More detailed on the general subject, or on special features of it, are William Stubbs Constitutional History of England, in 3 volumes to 1485, which should be used with the two supplements by Petit-Dutaillis published in translation by the Manchester University Press. Henry Hallam, from 1485 to 1760, is still helpful in many details and has been continued by T. E. May to 1860, and May in a third volume by F. Holland to 1911. F. W. Maitland's Collected Papers should be used on a number of topics. The special histories of law, Pollock and Maitland, 2 volumes, to the beginning of the fourteenth century, and W. S. Holdsworth, 3 volumes, for the whole history, and the Select Essays in Anglo-American Legal History, 3 volumes, are of constant help, as are also F. Makower's Constitutional History of the Church of England, W. Cunningham's Growth of English Industry and Commerce, and E. Lipson's Economic History of England. The general political histories, that edited by W. Hunt and R. L. Poole, in 12 volumes, that by Charles Oman in 7 volumes, and the Cambridge Modern History in 13, give much constitutional information and contain valuable bibliographies. C. Gross's Sources and Literature of English History to 1485 should be constantly consulted for bibliographical assistance.

The chapter bibliographies that follow are not intended to be complete but are in general limited to the most recent books and articles and to those having a special relation to the subjects of the chapter. For the medieval period they should be supplemented by Gross and for the modern by the bibliographies in the general histories named.

ABBREVIATIONS

Adams and Stephens, Select Documents of Eng

A. and S.

lish Constitutional History. 1901. A. H. R.

American Historical Review. Cheyney, Readings. E. P. Cheyney, Readings in English History from

the Original Sources. n. d. E. H. R.

English Historical Review. Gardiner, Documents. S. R. Gardiner, Constitutional Documents of the

Puritan Revolution. 1906. G. and H.

Documents Illustrative of English Church His

tory. 1896. Penn.

Translations and Reprints, University of Penn

sylvania. Prothero, Documents. G. W. Prothero, Select Statutes and Constitu

tional Documents. 1558-1625. 1913. Robertson, Statutes. C. G. Robertson, Select Statutes. Cases and

Documents. 1919. Stubbs, S. C.

W. Stubbs, Select Charters. Ed. H. W. C. Davis.

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