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Nov. 25. At Glasgow, Mr Moses Gardner, sur took no notice : it is supposed, that whilst he was geon, Charlotte Street.

making use of some vitriolic acid, the pungent - At Bannockburn, aged 27, Mr Andrew liquor came in contact with the wound, and cauThomson, accountant in the Bank of Scotland's sed so violent an inflammation as in a short time office, Stirling.

to terminate his existence. - At Edinburgh, Mrs Isobel Cochrane, relict Dec. 7. At Leith, Mr John Macleod, brewer of the late Mr James Taylor, Mound Place.

there. - Mr John Weir, schoolmaster in Polwarth, - At Edinburgh, Thomas Ireland, Esq. of Upin the 70th year of his age.

per Urquhart, Fifeshire. - At Edinburgh, Mary Rooke Gera, infant 7. At Irvine, John Peebles, Esq. late Captain daughter of Sir James Riddell, Baronet.

42d regiment, in the 85th year of his age. 26. At Edinburgh, Charles, youngest son of 8. At Aberdeen, in the 63d year of his age, the Charles Tawse, Esq. W. S.

Rev. John Gordon, Roman Catholic clergyman 27. At London, Hardin Burnley, Esq. aged 83, there. father-in-law of Joseph Hume, M. P.

Aged 70, the Right Hon. Thomas Steele, - At St Germain-en-laye, near Paris, the Duke formerly one of the Representatives in Parliament of Fitz-James, Lieutenant-General in the army of for Chichester. France, and a descendant of King James II. of - At East Kilspindie, Captain David Lauder, England, from an illegitimate branch.

Perthshire militia. 28. David Miller, Esq. of Pow, Fifeshire, aged 10. At London, in the 63d year of his age, Sir 79.

Eyre Coote, of West Park, Hants. - At the manse of Skene, the Rev. Jas. Hogg, - At Edinburgh, Alex. Dick, Esq. accountant. D. D., in the 720 year of his age, and 17th of his Near London, Lumsdaine Alves, Esq. Navy ministry, the last 37 of which he had the pastoral Pay Office. charge of the parish of Skene.

- At Edinburgh, Mr George Peel Lys, only - At Laurieston, Mrs Halkerston, of Carskerdo. surviving son of Thomas Lys, Esq. of London.

- At Foyers House, Inverness-shire, Mrs Fra 10. At Glasgow, Mi John Taylor, manufacturer. ser, of Foyers.

12. At Edinburgh, Miss Jean Clark, datghter - The Right Hon. Lord Milford, Lord Lieute of the late Gilbert Clark, Esq. nant of Pembrokeshire, and late Member for that 15. At Leith, in the 38th year of his age, the county. His Lordship was in the 85th year of his Rev. Robert Culbertson, minister of the gospel, age.

and pastor of the Associate Congregation, St An- At Edinburgh, Mr John Low, writer, son of drew's-Street. the late Rev. John Low, minister of the United 14. At Clifton, Miss Harriet Buchan, eldest Associate Congregation, Biggar.

daughter of the late George Buchan, Esq. of Kel29. At the manse of Premnay, the Rev. James loe, Berwickshire. Douglas, in the idth year of his age, and the 5lst - At Morton mains, Dumfries-shire, very sudof his ministry.

denly, George Welsh, Esq. aged 74. 30. At Glasgow, the Rev. J. Mackenzie, minister 15. At the Mansion House, Greenock, Mrs Tho. of the Gorbals Gaelic chapel.

mas Crawford, in the 78th year of her age. - At his house in Islandmagee, in the 85th year - In the S0th year of her age, her Serene of his age, the Rev. William Holmes, minister of Highness the Princess Dowager of Lippe. the Associate Presbyterian Congregation of Lally. 16. At Edinburgh, aged 23, Christian, eldest easton.

daughter of Mr Orr, S.S.C. Dec. 1. At the Water of Leith, Mrs Janet Stew. 17. At Midmar Castie, James Mansfield, Esq. art, in the 81st year of her age.

of Midmar. -- At Cowes, Mr John Maynard, R. N. in the At Glasgow, Janet, fifth daughter of Captain 90th year of his age ; he was at the taking of Que John Cameron, Reshipole, Argyilshire. bec with General Woife, in the year 1755, and of 19. At London, the wife of Mr Bennett, Secreten even latterly spoke of the fall of that heroic tary of Lloyd's, after a few days illness. She surofficer with feelings of regret.

vived the death of her second daughter, Emma - At the manse of Pettinain, Mrs Mary Lock Frances, who was in her 16th year, only ten days. hart, wife of the Rev. George Dickson.

20. At Edinburgh, Mrs Wm. Tennant, junior. 2. At Alloa, John Jameson, Esq. Sheriff-clerk of - At Falkirk, Mr Charles Alexander, in the Clackmannanshire.

84th year of his age. - At Hutton Hall, the seat of her grandfather, 21. At Kirkcudbright, Mrs Helen Miller, relict Robert Johnstone, Esq. Catherine He ter, only of John Milier, in Kirkcudbright, in the lulst daughter of the Rev. A. Scott, rector of Egre year of her age, and 9th of her widowhood. mont.

22. At Kirkcudbright, in the 83d year of her - At Glendaruel House, Miss Campbell, of age, Miss Thomson, daughter of the late David Glendaruel.

Thomson, Esq. of Ingliston. 3. Mr Archibald Roxburgh, merchant, Glasgow. 21. At Duverieif, Dr John Rogerson, of Wam.

4. At her house, York Place, Edinburgh, Mrs phray, first physician to the Emperor of Russia. Hay Mudie.

Lately. At her house, 74, Queen-Street, Edin- At Lathallan, Major John Lumsdaine, of burgh, Miss Agnes Hunter, daughter of te late Lathallan and Blanerne.

James Hunter, Esq. banker in Ayr. 5. At Edinburgh, Mr Andrew Henderson, of the Lately. In Sandwich workhouse, two of the ol. house of Sir illiam Forbes and Co.

dest mates-Samuel Gimber, aged 100, many - At Cargen, the Lady of William Stouhert, years landlord of the King's head, Sandwich; and Esq. of Cargen.

Mrs Bridges, aged 100. 6. At Castle Douglas, Mr James Begg, school - At Kowal, in the province of Mosorice, in master of that parish.

Poland, an ecclesiastic of the name of Bujalski, At Feddal House, Perthshire, in the 83d year at the very advanced age of 114 years. of his age, Robert Graham Burden, Esq. of Fed - In the West Indies, aged 39, Captain Arthur daland Auchingarich.

Richards, late of the Queensberry Arms inn, At Louth, Mr J. Gray, shoemaker, aged 55. Annan. The cause of his death was rather singular: a few - In London, aged 32, Eliza, widow of Gene days before, he with a penknife accidentally made ral Keith Macalister, late of Wimpole Street, Cain his thumb a very slight incision, of which he vendish Square, and Toresdale Castle, Argyleshire.

J. Ruthren & Son, Printers, Edinburgh.

THE

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE,

AND

LITERARY MISCELLANY.

FEBRUARY 1824.

NAPOLEON'S CAMPAIGNS.

No. II. In our former article, we laid be- it would be dangerous to pass the fore our readers some account of the Ticino, without securing the rear ; plan adopted by Napoleon, on being that, should the army advance, and appointed to the chief command of suffer a defeat, the Court of Turin, the Army of Italy, for turning the which was ruled by nobles and priests, Alps, penetrating into Italy by Sam the implacable foes of the Republic, vona, Cadibona, Carcari, and the would seize the opportunity to reBormida, and thus separating the venge itself for its present humiliaSardinian and Austrian Armies ; of tion; that Genoa, governed by an the series of brilliant

actions at Mon- oligarchy equally hostile to demotenotte, Millesimo, Dego, and Mon- cratical principles, was likewise an dovi, by which the enemy's line of object of much anxiety; that it was operations was intersected, and the necessary to determine whether the first great object of the campaign at army should stop after passing the tained ; and of the armistice of Ticino, or whether it should pursue Cherasco, by which the King of the same bold and hazardous system, Sardinia was detached from the co and pass the Adda, the Oglio, the alition, the fortresses of Coni, Tor- Mincio, the Adige, the Brenta, the tona, and Ceva, occupied by the Piave, the Tagliainento, and the French, the line of communication Isonzo; that it was highly impruwith Paris shortened by one-half, dent to leave a numerous and hostile and the “ Porter of the Alps” placed population in the rear; that, in orat the mercy of the Republic. der to proceed rapidly, it was néces

This armistice being concluded, it sary to proceed" deliberately, and became a subject of deliberation form points of support in every counwhether to advance, and how far. A try; and that, by advancing into the great advantage had undoubtedly Venetian territory, the Republic of been gained in separating the Pied- Venice, which had 50,000 men at its montese from the Austrian Army, disposal, would be compelled to deand restoring the communications clare for the enemy. with France: but it was argued that To all this it was answered, that the French Government might re- the French Army should profit by fuse the negociations proposed ; that victory; that it ought only to halt

• In terms of this armistice, the King of Sardinia sent Count Revel to Paris, to treat for a definitive peace, which was concluded and signed on the 15th of May 1796. By this treaty, the fortresses of Alessandria and Coni were surrendered to the Army of Italy ; Suza, la Brunette, and Exilles, were demolished, and the Alps opened. The humiliation of his Sardinian Majesty was complete. He had now no fortified points except Fort Bard and Turin ; while the French had acquired points d'appui and grand depôts of artillery, to form battering trains, and besiege the capital itself, should he violate the terms of the treaty.

R

VOL. XIV.

on the best line of defence against berty, and to excite Italian patriotism the Austrian Armies, which would against foreign domination, and that speedily debouch from the Tyrol and the word Italiam ! Italiam ! proFriuli; that this line was the Adige, claimed at Milan, Bologna, and Vewhich covers all the valleys of the rona, would produce a magical effect; Po, cuts off lower and middle Italy, but were it pronounced on the right and insulates the fortified city of bank of the Ticino, the Italians would Mantua, which might probably be say, “Why do you not advance?" taken before the Austrians could re It will be instantly recognised, cover from the shock of so many con- that the person who so powerfully secutive reverses, and be in a situa combated the arguments of those tion to succour it ; that, on the who, astonished at their own success, Adige, it would be easy to provide proposed to stop short, and endeavour for the expences of the army, be to secure what had been already cause the burthen would be divided gained, was Napoleon. With that among the population of Piedmont, acuteness and comprehension of Lombardy, the Legations of Bolog- mind, which, to ordinary observers, na and Ferrara, and the Duchies of assumes the character of actual preParma and Modena ; that as to Ve science, and is one of the distinguishnice declaring war against France, ing attributes of high genius, he fore. the effectual way to prevent her was saw the advantages that would result to carry the war, in a few days, into from preserving the lead he had so the midst of her states, before she boldly taken with such inferior num. could be prepared for such an event, bers, and had full confidence, both and had time to form resolutions in the bravery of the troops he comand levy troops; that, should the manded, and in the ascendancy of arniy remain on the right bank of his own talents and fortune. He the Ticino, the Austrians would accordingly resolved to advance. force thạt Republic to make com Beaulieu had retreated, in conmon cause with them; that the King sternation, beyond the Po, with the of Sardinia was no longer formidable, intention of defending the passage of his militia being disbanded, and the that river opposite Valenza, and, affairs of his country in the worst should it be forced, of disputing sucpossible state ; that all his remaining cessively the passage of the Sesia forces hardly amounted to 18,000 and of the Ticino. With this view he men, who were dispersed through a stationed his troops on the left bank great number of towns, and were of the Cogna, at the camp

of Valegscarcely sufficient to maintain inter gio, where he was reinforced by a nal tranquillity, as the number of reserve of ten battalions, which malecontents was daily increasing; made his army equal to that of the that the Court of Vienna would be French. A number of circumstances highly dissatisfied with that of Tu confirmed him in the belief that the rin, for having despaired of the com French would attempt the passage at mon cause, upon the first reverse of that point. In the beginning of fortune ; that there was nothing to May, when the gates of the fortresses fear from the oligarchs of Genoa, of Coni, Tortona, and Mantua, were the best guarantee of whose conduet opened to the French,

Massena consisted in the immense profits they marched with his division to Alesmade by their neutrality; that the sandria, where he captured a great French Army, on reaching the Adige, quantity

quantity of stores belonging to the would command all the states of the Austrian Army, and immediately House of Austria in Italy, and all pushed forward parties in the directhose of the Pope, on this side of the tion of Valenza. This seemed to Appenines, and would be in a situa- corroborate the inference which had tion to proclaim the principles of li been drawn from the article in the

* In the concluding part of the armistice of Cherasco, an article had been inserted, prescribing the surrender of Valenza to the French, which seemed to designate that place as the point where they meant to attempt the passage of the Po. This supposition, however, had only been suffered to appear in a mysterious manner, for a reason which the reader will immediately discover,

armistice of Cherasco, stipulating the rapid river in the rear, it obviously surrender of Valenza. "About the became of the utmost importance to same time, Augereau broke up from dislodge him from Fiombio. Aca Alba, and encamped at the mouth of cordingly Napoleon made instant the Scrivia. Serrurier repaired to dispositions for that purpose ; and, Tortona, where Laharpe had pre- in an hour, the village was carried, 'viously arrived by the Acqui road, and the Austrian division which de and where the grenadiers of the ar fended it routed, with the loss of my, to the number of 3500 men, had their cannon, a considerable numassembled. With this corps d'élite, ber of prisoners, and some standards. the cavalry, and twenty-four pieces The wrecks of this corps threw of cannon, Napoleon advanced by themselves into Pizzighettone, which forced marches on Placenza, in order they reached with the utmost difto effect the passage of the Po at ficulty, being closely pursued by that place, instead of Valenza, where Laharpe with the grenadiers, who, Beaulieu was preparing to dispute it. after balting within half cannon-shot The instant the intended operation of the fortress, executed a retrograde was unmasked, all the French divi« movement, in order to place himself sions broke up from their respective in advance of Codogno, and to cover positions, and marcbed with all pos- the roads to Pavia and Lodi. From sible speed on Plazenza. At nine the prisoners taken at Fiombio it o'clock in the morning of the 7th of had been ascertained that Beaulieu May Napoleon arrived before the was on his march to encamp with town, and proceeded to the banks of his army behind that village; and the river, where he remained till the it was therefore possible that some passage was effected, and the van on of his corps, not knowing what had the opposite bank. Colonel Lannes taken place in the afternoon, might passed first with 900 grenadiers, and advance to Codogno to take up their met with some resistance from two quarters there. The troops were squadrons of theenemy's hussars, who instructed accordingly; and during were soon put to flight. In the night the night Massena passed the Po, of the 7th the whole army arrived, and placed himself in reserve at the and on the 9th the bridge was com head of the bridge, to support Lapleted. By these admirable disposi- harpe in case of need. What Nations Beaulieu was outwitted, the poleon had foreseen actually took passage of this important river * sur- place. Notwithstanding the secrecy prised, and one of the most critical and rapidity with which the troops and difficult operations of war per- had marched from Tortona to Pla.. formed, without loss, at the point cenza, Beaulieu had received informost advantageous for the future mation of the movement, and lost operations of the French Army. no time in putting all his troops

During the night of the 7th Lip- in march, in hopes of arriving optay's division of the Austrian Ar- posite Placenza in time to prevent my arrived at Fiombio, one league the passage of the river by, the from the bridge of Placenza; and French, who, he knew, had no ponon the afternoon of the 8th it was toons. One of the regiments of cadiscovered that the steeples and hou- valry, in advance of the column in ses of the village were embattled which Beaulieu was, presented ita and Silled with troops, and that can self at General Laharpe's outposts, non were planted on the roads. As on the Pavia road, and gave the the enemy might' receive great re alarm there. The bivouacs were inforcements, and as it would have speedily under arms; but after a few been extremely hazardous to be com discharges t, the enemy, afraid of pelled to give battle with a large and being caught in flagranti delicto,

• The Po is very rapid at Placenza, and about 250 toises in breadth.

+ On this occasion a melancholy circumstance occurred. Laharpe, followed by a piquet and several officers, went forward to ascertain what was the meaning of this attack, and to interrogate in person the inhabitants of the first farm houses on the road. From these he learned, as above, that the alarm had been occasioned by a regiment of cavalry, which was ignorant that the French had passed the Po, and

disappeared ; Beaulieu was once more fell in with a strong rear-guard of out-generalled.

Austrian grenadiers, posted in an On entering the states of Parma, advantageous position, defending the Napoleon received, at the passage Lodi road. In order to dislodge of the Trebbia, envoys from the this body, it became necessary to Duke of Parma, requesting peace, maneuvre, which was performed by and his protection. This Prince was the French troops with the confiof little political importance, and as dence and ardour inspired by victory. the French had no time to under. The enemy, aware of the importance take the administration of his terri- of maintaining his ground, and, if tory, they fell upon the simple and possible, checking or retarding the effectual device of selling their pro- advance of the French, defended tection at the highest possible price. himself with the utmost obstinacy; By an armistice, signed on the morn- but at length his ranks fell into coning of the 9th at Placenza, the Duke fusion, and he was hotly pursued was to pay two millions (of francs) even into the town of Lodi, the in money, furnish the magazines of French soldiers entering pell-mell the army with a specified quantity with the fugitives. The latter, howof wheat, hay, &c. ; supply 1600 ever, rallied behind the line of bathorses for the cavalry and artillery, tle, which Beaulieu had taken upon defray the expences of all the mili- the left bank of the Adda. The tary routes and hospitals which Austrian General then unmasked should be established in his states, from twenty-five to thirty pieces of and contribute twenty pictures, to be cannon, in order to defend the bridge chosen by French Commissioners, of the Adda ; and the French imfor the Museum at Paris

mediately opposed to him a like On the 10th the French army number. The Austrian line was moved from Casal-Pusterlengo on composed of 12,000 infantry, and Lodi, where Beaulieu had effected 4000 cavalry, which, with the 10,000 the junction of Sebottendorf's and who were retreating on Cassano, the Roselmini's divisions, and had di- 8000 who had been beaten at Fiomrected Colli and Wukassowich on bio, and the remains of whom had Milan and Cassano. By inspecting retreated (as we have seen) to Piza map, it will be seen, that the fate zighettone, and the 2000 who garof these last corps depended on ra risoned the Castle of Milan, made pidity of marching, and that they up between 35,000 and 36,000 men, inight be cut off from the Oglio and being all that now remained of the made prisoners. Within a league Austrian Army: of Casal, however, the French army In this situation Napoleon formed also that it had turned to the left, in the direction of Lodi. Laharpe then returned towards the camp, not by the road by which the soldiers had seen him set out, but by a by-path. The troops being on the alert, received their General with a brisk fire of musketry, and “ Laharpe fell dead, pierced with the bullets of his own sol. diers." The following is Napoleon's account of this brave soldier. Swiss of the Canton of Vand. His hatred of the government of Berne had exposed him to persecutions, from which he had sought an asylum in France. He was an officer of distinguished bravery ; a grenadier both in stature and in courage ; he commanded his troops skilfully, and was much beloved by them, though of an unquiet temper. It was remarked, that during the action of Fiombio, throughout the evening preceding his death, he had seemed very absent and dejected ; giving no orders, appearing, as it were, deprived of his usual faculties, and entirely overwhelmed by a

The news of this melancholy event reached head-quarters at four in the morning. Berthier was instantly sent to this division of the vanguard, and found the troops in the greatest affliction.”

This was the first instance in which the French imposed contributions of works of art for the adornment of the gallery of the Louvre. Among the twenty pictures selected by the French Commissioners was the famous St. Jerome. The Duke of. fered two millions of francs to be allowed to keep this picture, and the army-agents were decidedly in favour of accepting the money ; but Napoleon would not listen to the proposal. “ There would very soon (he said) be nothing left out of the two millions proposed, whilst the possession of such a masterpiece by the city of Paris would be ornamental to the capital, and would produce other chefs-d'æuore of art."

“ He was a

FATAL PRESENTIMENT.

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