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phers, and means that knowledge is :"-" A body cannot pass from which the mind intuitively has of a state of rest to motion, or from moits own operations; for the term Re- tion to rest, except in time,"sc.&c. But flection, under any other application it may be said, and truly, that, in the of it, would imply an operation of first and third of these propositions, the judgment, and that, again, would the idea of time is involved, and is involve the notion of Propositions, necessary to the developement of the every act of the judgment being equi- elementary principle, while it is apvalent to an affirmative or negative parent that we come by the idea of proposition; which meaning would, time, by the aid of memory, which in the instance before us, be absurd enables us to attend to intervals, and and ridiculous. Assuming, then, to mark successions. That there is this definition of the term as correct, more involved in the idea of time it follows that the intuitive and cer than mere sequence of increments, we tain knowledge which the mind has firmly believe;, but, passing from of its own operations, cannot be ac- this, it will hardly be denied, that the curately described as an original truth of these propositions does not source of ideas, excepting in so far as depend on reflection. They are true, it brings the mind acquainted with though man had never been created those ideas which existed previously a percipient of truth, and anterior to in itself, and which can no more be all consciousness. We are conscious separated from the essential constitu- of them solely because they are true, tion of the thinking principle within as we are of their opposites, solely us, than matter can be conceived because they are false. The consciouswithout the primary quality of ex ness, or the knowledge which the tention. The remaining link, in the mind has of its own operations, is chain of classification, and which was one thing, and the eternal truth of obviously omitted by Locke, it was the proposition another. We are reserved for the German philosopher, only conscious of the existence of the Kant, to supply; and he has demon- idea, but the truth, or falsehood, destrated that there are ideas in the pends on its being an Idea of Pure mindindependently
of either sensation Reason (as it has been called), which or reflection; and which, arising from cannot but be perceived and acknowthe constitution of the mind itself, and ledged by every rational creature the bearing no relation to antecedent sen moment it is enunciated in the form sation, or subsequent consciousness, of a proposition. Hence Mr Locke's except as mere occasions of develope- theory errs in defect, and makes no ment, but being, in fact, identified account of a large class of our ideas with the essence of the understand- which spring up in the mind the moing itself, he has appropriately deno- ment an occasion is furnished, beminated Ideas of Pure Reason. cause, to use a homely but expressive It will not be pretended, for example, phrase, they are part and parcel of that the complex ideas involved in the mind itself *. the following elementary propositions are the result of either sensation or reflection in the sense ascribed to that
• The reader must not suppose, from
what has been said, that we are partizans word by all those philosophers who
of Innate Ideas. The dispute on this have employed it upon the same analogy with Mr Locke : -" It is point, into which Mr Locke entered with so
much zeal, is now agreed, on all hands, impossible to be in a state of exist
to be purely verbal. If any of our readers ence and non-existence at the same
should happen to entertain doubts on this moment of time :”—“ Whatever is, head, we cannot do better than quote the
words of Mr Hume: “ It is probable variety of senses this word has hitherto that no more was meant by who denied been employed, we quote the following innate ideas, than that all ideas were copassage from one of Pope's Letters : “An pies of our impressions; though it must honest mind is not in the power of a be confessed, that the terms which they dishonest; to break its peace there must employed were not chosen with such caube some guilt, or consciousness" This tion, nor so exactly defined, as to prevent certainly is the literal meaning: mens all mistakes about their doctrine. For conscia sibi recti, &c.
what is meant by innate? If innate be
Having said so much to shew in ly stated in the following sentence? what respects we think Mr Locke's External objects furnish the mind classification of the Sources of our with the ideas of sensible qualiKnowledge defective, we cannot help ties; and the mind furnishes the unremarking, with astonishment, the derstanding with ideas of its own mnisapprehensions long, and, we fear, operations.'"-(Locke's Works, Vol. in some degree still prevalent on the I. p. 79.). Had Mr Locke never proContinent on this most difficult, im- pounded his ideas in any other more portant, and interesting of all meta- technical form than that of the pasphysical questions; misapprehen- sage just quoted, Kant's pretensions sions which have been countenanced to originality would not have been so by no less an authority than Leib- readily acknowledged among pronitz, who has uniformly represented found thinkers; but the truth seems Locke as a partizan of the maxim of to be, that Locke allowed his judgthe schools, Nihil in intellectu quod non ment to be warped by his love of fuerit in sensu ; upon which Leibnitz simplification, and by the technicahimself, after Aristotle, makes the lities of a system which involved following comm
amentary, admirably consequences he did not foresee, and and strikingly illustrative of our ob- was afterwards made the groundservations immediately preceding:- work of a system of complete and “Nempe” (inquit Leibnitzius,)“ ni- universal scepticism. It is only by hil est in intellectu quod non fue- casting off the trammels of systern, rit in sensu, nisi ipse intellectus.”— by abjuring all regard to mere hypo“ The remark is excellent,” says Mr thesis, and by a steady survey of the Stewart," and does honour to the intellectual phenomena with the acuteness of the critic; but it is not single eye” of the Inductive Phicasy to conceive on what grounds it losophy, that any valuable or imporshould have been urged as an objec- tant advances will ever be made in tion to a writer who has insisted so the Science of Metaphysics. At the explicitly and so frequently on reflec- time when Leibnitz wrote, the rust tion as the source of a class of ideas of the schools still adhered to the essentially different from those which minds of philosophers, who had not are derived from sensation. To my- yet been able wholly to emancipate self it appears, that the words of themselves from the prejudices which Leibnitz only convey, in a more con had so long obstructed the progress of cise and epigrammatic form, the true science, and which kept men substance of Locke's doctrine. Is fighting and struggling about uninany thing implied in them which telligibilities, absurditics, or subjects Locke has not more fully and clear- placed infinitely beyond the reach of
the human faculties. To this cause equivolent to natural, than all the percep. probably we are to ascribe the pertitions and ideas of the mind must be als nacity with which Leibnitz reprelowed to be innate, or natural, in what- sented Locke as a partizan of a ever sense we take the word, whether in maxim to which the whole of his opposition to what is uncommon, artific book is in direct opposition, and cial, or miraculous. If, by innate, be which he has never countenanced, meant contemporary to our birth, the dis- either by explicit statement, or fair pute seems to be frivolous; nor is it worth virtual inference. while to enquire at what time thinking Of Mr Locke's Tracts on Educabegins, whether before, at, or after our
tion, and the Conduct of the Unbirth.' Again, the word idea seems to be derstanding, Mr Stewart says little, commonly taken in a very loose sense, by Locke and others: as standing for any and judicious. In our opinion, which,
but that little is extremely pertinent of our perceptions, our sensations, and passions, as well as thoughts. Now, in
however, we express with great dethis sense, I should desire to know what ference, the Tract on Education is can be meant by asserting, that self-love, the tritest and most common-place of or resentment of injuries, or the passion all his works, to say nothing of the between the sexes, is not innate?” (Essays
errors into which he has fallen from and Treatises on several Subjects, by Da. want of practical acquaintance with vid Hume, Esq. Note A. io Vol. II.- the subject ; for it can hardly, we Edin. 1809.)
think, admit of question, that a mere
speculative philosopher, who has not and illustration are given by Leibnitz studied human nature in its actual himself, in his Essay entitled Theo operations, is a very unfit person for dicæa: doing more than merely laying down "I cannot help coming into the general principles on this subject. notion, that God created the soul in It is no proof of the unsoundness of such manner at first, that it should our opinion, that Leibnitz thought represent within itself all the simulthis the best and ablest of all Mr taneous changes in the body; and Locke's works. It was a moral weak. that he has made the body also in ness of that truly great man, that he such a manner, as that it must of could never be made to perceive me- itself do what the soul wills : so that rit in any literary or scientific pere the laws which make the thoughts of formance which had pretensions to the soul follow each other in regurival any of the various pursuits in lar succession, must produce images which he engaged ; and he may, which shall be coincident with the therefore, be supposed to have view- impressions made by external objects ed the Tract on Education, a sub upon our organs of sense; while the ject on which he had written nothing, law by which the motions of the with more indulgence and favour body follow each other, are likewise than the Essay on Human Undere so coincident with the thoughts of standing, in which subjects to which the soul, as to give to our volitions the Oracle of Germany had so ar and actions the very appearance, as dently, and, in the opinion of many, if the latter were really the natural so unsuccessfully devoted himself, and necessary, consequences of the are handled with unparalleled bolda former.'-(Leib. Op. p. 163.) Upon ness and originality, as well as acute another occasion he observes, ness and ingenuity. This is not the every thing goes on in the soul as if place to speak either of the Letters on it had no body, and that every thing Toleration, or of the Treatise on Go- goes on in the body as if it had no verament, two books to which the soul.'-(Ibid II. p. 44.) world has been indebted for much “ To convey his meaning, more valuable and original information, fully, Leibnitz borrows from Jaqueand which alone would have served lot (author of a book entitled Conto perpetuate the author's fame as formité de la Foi avec la Raison) a one of the deepest and soundest comparison which, whatever may be thinkers the world has ever seen,' thought of its justness, must be ala and as an honest incorruptible pas lowed some merit ip point of ingetriot, as well as an ardent searcher nuity. • Suppose that an intelligent for, and lover of, truth.
and powerful being, who knew, beThe name of Leibnitz has been fore-hand, every particular thing unavoidably of frequent occurrence that I should order my footman to in the preceding remarks: it now re do to-morrow, should make a maInains briefly to point the reader's chine to resemble my footman exattention to the contributions of this actly, and punctually to perform, all great and versatile genius to the day, whatever I directed. On this science of Mental Philosophy. The supposition, would not my will, in Metaphysical Theories, which aca issuing all the details of my
orders, knowledge Leibnitz as their author, remain, in every respect, the same are the doctrine of Pre-established as before? And would not my maHarmony, and the scheme of Optia chine-footman, in performing his difmism, as new-modelled by hima. ferent movements, have the appearself.” “ According to the system of ance of acting only in obedience to Pre-established Harmony,” says Mr my commands?' The inference to S., “ the human mind and human be drawn from this comparison (conbody are two independent but con tinues Mr S.) is, that the movements stantly correspondent machines ; ad- of my body have no direct dependjusted to each other like two uncon ance whatever on the volitions of my Dected clocks, so constructed, that, mind, any more than the actions of at the same instant, the one should my machine-footman would have on point the hour and the other strike it. the words issuing from my lips. The Of this system the following summary same inference is to be extended to
the relations which the impressions pothesis, which stands in such remade on my different senses bear to markable contrast to the Platonic the co-existent perceptions arising in theory of Reminiscence. But the my mind. The impressions and pera fundamental objection to the scheme ceptions have no mutual connection, of Pre-established Harmony consists resembling that of physical causes in this, that it assumes the mind to with their effects ; but the one series be a Spiritual Automaton, which may of events is made to correspond in- be conceived ; and the body, a Cora variably with the other, in conse- poreal Automaton, independent of the quence of an eternal Harmony be- mind, but maintained in correspondtween them, pre-established by their ence and accord, or, if we may say common Creator."
so, in tune, with it, which is not Mr Stewart remarks, with his only not proved, but directly conusual depth and discrimination, that trary to the fact : for, upon this hythe Pre-established Harmony of Leib- pothesis, the body, at death, would nitz originated in the same train not lose its mechanical, or, to speak of thinking, which had produced more correctly, its automatic powers, Malebranche’s Doctrine of Occasional but would only suffer the disturbCauses. “ The authors of both theo- ance, or disruption of the harmony ries saw clearly the impossibility of pre-established between it and the tracing the manner in which mind Spiritual Automaton. Besides, Leibacts on body, or body on mind; and nitz, as appears to us, has been rehence were led rashly to conclude, markably unfortunate in the illusthat the connection, or union, which tration which he borrowed from Jaseems to exist between them is not quelot, and which Mr Stewart praises real, but apparent. The inferences, for its “ ingenuity.” The object of however, which they drew from this that comparison is to establish, that common principle were directly oppo- the “ machine footman," while he site; Malebranche maintaining that “has the appearance of acting only the communication between mind in obedience to the commands” of and body was carried on by the im- the maker, is totally uninfluenced by mediate and incessant agency of the his volitions, and is obedient only to Deity; while Leibnitz conceived the laws of matter which are permathat the agency of God was employ- nent and necessary: and that, thereed only in the original contrivance fore, the movements of the body have and mutual adjustment of the two no dependence on the volitions of the machines ;-all the subsequent phe- corresponding and harmonised mind. nomena of each being the necessary The whole, however, is a mere results of its own independent me- quibble. To assert, for example, chanism, and at the same time the that a clock or a watch does not act progressive evolutions of a compre- in obedience to the volitions of the hensive design, harmonising the laws maker is as false as it is absurd. of the one with those of the other.” True, the horologist does not, and There can be but little doubt, we cannot possibly will the laws of matshould imagine, that these bold and ter to sustain modifications suited to original attempts of Malebranche his convenience, but, taking the laws and Leibnitz (and that of the French of matter as pre-ordained by the philosopher is the more tenable of creator, he wills a particular end, the the two) to explain what is, in its division of time, and, by his “inown nature, not only inexplicable, genuity" and knowledge, he renders but probably incomprehensible, as matter subservient to his purpose. the human faculties are now consti- Now, is not the effect here produced tuted, is a pure figment of imaginas a direct result of volition?' But it tion, as absurd and illusory as Mes- may be argued in favour of the Leibmerism or the Tractors; leaving us, nitzian hypothesis, that all this is adwith reference to what it professes to mitted as true of the Maker of the illustrate, in the identical situation in Human Machine, which acts in obewhich it found us. At the same dience to his Volitions, but is not time it must be confessed, that there true of the Corporeal Automaton is something wonderfully striking, if when placed in harmony with a Soul, not sublime, in the idea of this hy, or Spiritual Automaton, just as a
clock or watch may be allowed to act only without proof, (for, from the in obedience to the volitions of the very nature of things, he could promaker, but cannot be admitted to act duce none, all his attempts being in conformity to the volitions of him merely to illustrate what he had prewho knows nothing of its mechanism, viously taken for granted), but, in and has only purchased it from the direct repugnance to one of the most original contriver. The analogy here powerful of the fundamental princistated, though it may be admitted to ples of human belief-the conviction be ingenious, does not hold, or bear that the movements of the body take upon the point at issue. There is, place in consequence of, and correspond so far as we know, no harmony pre- with, the volitions of the mind-we established between a man and his honestly profess our entire ignorance watch ; and it is certainly true, that of the matter in question, and of the his mere volition has no more influ. principles of that philosophy (if phience on the movements of the mac Iosophy it may be called) in which chinery than on the winds or the one meets with such gratuitous and tides, the rising or setting of the sun, unsubstantiated assumptions. or the motions of the heavenly bo That such a system as this should dies. But the possessor of a watch have terminated in optimism will be has a power over its movements, and 'matter of surprise to nobody who although that power is not the direct understands it.
“ As it represented effect of volition alone, without inter- all events, both in the physical and mediate agency, still, as all power ‘moral worlds, as the necessary effects must ultimately depend on will, it of a mechanism originally contrived, may correctly be described an effect and set a-going by the Deity, it reof simple volition. But, according to duced its author to the alternative of Leibnitz, the will has no control or either calling in question the divine influence over the movements of the power, wisdom, and goodness, or of body. Hence the analogy in ques- asserting that the universe which he tion utterly fails; and so does that had called into being was the best of of the “ machine footman" of Jaque- all possible systems. This last opilot, which is in precisely the same nion, accordingly, was eagerly empredicament with the watch. If any braced by Leibnitz, &c.” That the philosopher should ask us to say how subject of moral evil should have Leibnitz assumed the existence of been felt by. Leibnitz, as a peculiarly such a pre-established harmony *, not puzzling and ticklish problem to re
solve upon his system, is no more
than we might have expected, conWe cannot resist the temptation of sidering the difficulty that adheres to corroborating our opinions by the concur this matter upon any system which rent sentiments of a very profound and human ingenuity has hitherto been original thinker :--" According to the able to devise. But how, upon the system of pre-established harmony, the scheme of pre-established harmony, soul derives all its knowledge from its he should have held it possible for own proper fund, without any contribu
men to incur guilt, or, what comes tion on the part of the body and the sen
to the same thing, for human beings ses. Thus, when I read in the Gazette to be responsible for their actions, is that the Pope is dead, and I come to the surely not so easy to account for knowledge of the Pope's death, the Ga- The truth is, Leibnitz cut the knot zette and my reading have nothing to do he could not untie. Bold as he was, with the communication of this know. ledge, as these circumstances respect only he durst not deny the morality of my body and my senses, which have no
human actions : philosopher as he manner of connection with my soul. But, was, he would not surrender his own conformably to this system, my soul de ingenious hypothesis: there was rives at the same time, from its own pro- consequently nothing for it but a per fund, the ideas which it has of this same Pope. It concludes he must absolutely be dead, and this knowledge comes which I really derived from the proper to it with the reading of the Gazette, so fund of my soul.” (Euler's Letters to a that I imagine the reading of the Ga. German Princess, p. 320. Lond. 1802. zette furnished me with this knowledge, English Transl.)